the converter 
The converter achieves a zerocurrent tuning off for inner switching, and a zerovoltage tuning on for outer switching.


Consideration was given to the nonlinear observer with the feedback sensitivity function which showed itself well in estimating the carbon and silicon content in the converter melt on the basis of the nonlinear model with timeconstant parameters.


The converter of analog signals into a numerical pulse code transmits data to a personal computer through a standard COMport.


The converter sensitivity is 0.25 pC/readout, dynamic range is 12 binary digits, and integral nonlinearity is 0.1%.


The converter is designed on the basis of a fieldeffect transistor with a balanced thermistor bridge connected to the drain circuit.


The acoustic baseline distance of the converter is 0.1 m, the measurement range is 14001600 m/s, the output signal is a frequency of 140160 kHz, the absolute basic error is ±0.035 m/s, and the output signal rise time does not exceed ≤0.6 s.


The output current of the converter is ±?250 mA, and the conversion nonlinearity is ≤ 0.015%.


The converter circuit has insignificant time (0.001%/h) and temperature (0.001%/10°С) drifts.


The nonlinearity of the converter does not exceed 0.01%, the temperature drift is 0.01%/10°C, the time drift is 0.005%/h, the permissible range of output voltages is ±10 V, and the output impedance of the converter is >amp;gt;10 MΩ.


It was demonstrated that comprehensive diagnostics of the electron beam acceleration mode of the HCPA can be performed simultaneously with the determination of the bremsstrahlung parameters at a local point of the field behind the converter target.


The converter lifetime is 107 pulses at an average power density of up to 100 W/cm2 and a peak power density of 109 W/cm2.


The converter parameters are optimized for various electron energies.


The sensitivity of the converter is 1 mV/count, its dynamic range is eight binary digits, and its integral nonlinearity is 0.1%.


Transient processes in the circuit are analyzed and the main parameters of the converter at a given pulse energy are determined.


The converter is based on a cylinder with the anisotropic surface conduction along helical lines.


Scanning electron microscopy and Xray fluorescence microanalysis were applied to study the distribution of zinc, lead, arsenic, antimony, and tin among phases of the converter matte from the Pechenganikel' combine.


Regularities of the behavior of the frequency response, nonlinear distortion factor, and dynamic range of the converter are established.


It is shown that it is possible to control the spectral range of photoconverter's photosensitivity (λ=510.6 μm) by shortwavelength illumination of photodetector included in the converter.


Calculations show that the proper choice of material and thickness of the converter affords a twoto fivefold increase in the energy of the x radiation absorbed in thin films of semiconductor materials.


Such emitters not only perform their basic function in the converter but also serve as an "internal" oxygen source.

