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retinal
Best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, retinal thickness and FFA were observed.
      
At the early stages of retina development, the neuroepithelial cells divide synchronously, thus leading to the accumulation of a certain number of the retinal rudiment cells.
      
Synchronous divisions precede the asynchronous ones, when the differentiation of the retinal cells is initiated.
      
The multipotent cells of the retinal ciliary-terminal zone and cells of the pigment epithelium in the eye periphery provide for the growth of amphibian and fish eyes during the entire life of these animals.
      
The main event of retinal regeneration in newts is the transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelium cells.
      
Different distributions of proliferating cells in retinal pigment epithelium have been revealed in adult amphibians (newt, axolotl, and Xenopus).
      
Active Pax6, Prox1, and Six3 expression was detected at early stages of regeneration in all proliferating neuroblasts forming the retinal primordium.
      
At the intermediate stage of retinal regeneration, the distribution of Pax6, Prox1, and Six3 mRNA was diffuse and even all over the primordium.
      
During differentiation of the cellular layers in the course of retinal regeneration, Pax6, Prox1, and Six3 mRNA was predominantly localized in ganglion cells and in the inner part of the inner nuclear layer, which was similar to the native retina.
      
Although there are still many gaps, it is now possible to reconstruct the main events in the translocation of the proton and how they are coupled to the photoisomerization of the retinal chromophore.
      
Rhodopsin has an 11-cis retinal as the chromophore, which binds covalently with a lysine residue through a protonated Schiff base linkage.
      
The primary events in the photosynthetic retinal protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) are reviewed in light of photophysical and photochemical experiments with artificial bR in which the native retinal polyene is replaced by a variety of chromophores.
      
Other systems include retinal oxime and non-isomerizable dyes noncovalently residing in the binding site.
      
An additional approach is based on the light-induced cleavage of the protonated Schiff base bond that links retinal to the protein by reacting with hydroxylamine.
      
The ground state ppR contains only all-trans retinal whereas ppRM and ppRO contain 13-cis and all-trans, respectively.
      
It shares common chromophore properties with retinal proteins from archaea.
      
A retinal-binding protein has been identified in such preparations, the amino acid sequence of which shows a certain homology to sequences of animal visual rhodopsins.
      
Greater intensity of deformational vibrations suggests distorted retinal structure in the vibrationally excited ground electronic state.
      
A method for synthesis of retinal analogs labeled with electron-density groups is suggested.
      
A retinal analog containing a crown-ether receptor group is able to interact readily with bacterioopsin giving rise to rapid formation of a pigment with absorption maximum at 460 nm.
      
 

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