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Concurrently a novel behavioral syndrome emerged characterized by limb flicks, body shakes, sudden orienting responses, and motor abnormalities, such as tremors of the jaw muscles, chewing movements, prominent tongue extensions, and body 'tics'.
      
Fluphenazine decanoate (25 mg/kg IM every 3 weeks x 6) resulted in spontaneous vacuous chewing mouth movements and jaw tremor in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
      
DADLenk and DADMenk elicited dose-dependent biting dyskinesias with a chewing rate of about 90 jaw movements/min.
      
Cholinergic stimulation of this region produced a dose-dependent induction of mouth movements, characterized by chewing movements, jaw opening and closing, tongue protrusions and jaw tremors.
      
Vacuous jaw movements induced by sub-chronic administration of haloperidol: interactions with scopolamine
      
The present series of experiments was conducted to investigate the vacuous jaw movements induced by sub-chronic administration of haloperidol (HP).
      
In the first experiment, daily injection of 0.4 mg/kg HP for 10 days increased vacuous jaw movements and decreased rearing behavior.
      
Co-administration of 0.5 mg/kg scopolamine with 0.4 mg/kg HP for 9 days reduced vacuous jaw movements and increased rearing responses relative to rats that received HP alone.
      
Co-administration of HP with 0.25 mg/kg scopolamine for 9 days increased rearing relative to rats that received HP alone, but there was no effect of the lower dose of scopolamine on vacuous jaw movements.
      
Administration of 0.5 mg/kg scopolamine plus 0.4 mg/kg HP on days 11-14 to rats that had received HP alone for 10 days reversed the effect of HP on rearing, but not on vacuous jaw movements.
      
Rats that had received HP plus scopolamine for 10 days showed dramatic increases in vacuous jaw movements when scopolamine was withdrawn.
      
The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that vacuous jaw movements in rats share some characteristics with Parkinsonian symptoms.
      
Vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusions (TP), and jaw tremors (TR) were studied in rats during acute and chronic administration of two potential antipsychotics, amperozide and FG5803.
      
Clozapine decreased tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements in a dose-related manner, with an ED50 of approximately 3.3 mg/kg.
      
This indicates that clozapine suppressed jaw movements at or below the doses required for suppression of lever pressing.
      
In contrast, the typical antipsychotic drug haloperidol failed to suppress tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements in doses up to 1.0 mg/kg, which is about 11-fold higher than the ED50 for suppression of lever pressing with that drug.
      
Thioridazine and risperidone also suppressed tremulous jaw movements in roughly the same dose range at which lever pressing was reduced.
      
It is possible that the suppression of tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements by clozapine in rats is related to the unique behavioral and motor effects of clozapine.
      
The ratio of potencies of these effects (i.e., suppression of tremulous jaw movements versus suppression of lever pressing) could be used as a behavioral procedure for assessing clozapine-like activity in novel compounds.
      
The systemic administration of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) to rats elicits locomotor activation, wet dog shakes, jaw movements, paw licking and tail rattle.
      
 

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