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acephate
Behaviour of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in apple samples
      
A study of the decay of acephate in apple samples was carried out, including penetration studies and the transformation of acephate in to its main metabolite, methamidophos.
      
Recoveries were measured at three spiked levels, ranging from 0.050 to 0.504 μg g-1 for acephate and 0.049 to 0.492 μg g-1 for methamidophos.
      
Mean acephate recoveries were 93.0 to 115.5% from peel and 99.2 to 110.2% from pulp, while methamidophos recoveries were 77.2 to 104.2% and 77.5 to 98.6% from peel and pulp, respectively (n=6).
      
Results showed that acephate penetrates into the fruit, where it is transformed to methamidophos.
      
Acephate, methamidophos, dichlorvos, dicrotophos and malathion could be separated by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography using an electrophoretic electrolyte containing 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) and 75 mM sodium dodecyl sulphate.
      
In the present study a multi-residue analytical method was developed for monitoring some polar pesticides such as acephate, methamidophos, carbofuran, isoproturon, dimethoate in water with SPE (solid-phase extraction) and LC-MS-MS.
      
The results showed that for acephate and methamidophos, the breakthrough volume was about 30 mL of water sample, much less than the breakthrough volume of other pesticides studied.
      
The present study investigates the influence of elution protocols on the capacity of PSA for removal of fatty acids and the root regarding poor recoveries of metamidophos and acephate.
      
The action of acephate in Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Pristhesancus papuensis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)
      
The toxicity, toxodynamics, and toxokinetics of acephate were investigated in the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens, and a predatory reduviid, Pristhesancus papuensis.
      
Acephate was nine-fold more toxic to the predator than the phytophagous soybean looper at the LD50.
      
Both acephate and its presumed activation product, methamidophos, were found to be inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AcChE) in vitro.
      
The activation of acephate to methamidophos was four times greater in P.
      
The activation and accumulation steps then, are apparently the major reasons for the greater toxicity of acephate to P.
      
Susceptibility to acephate, methomyl, and permethrin was determined with laboratory bioassays of field-collected adults from 15 populations of the B biotype of sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera:Aleyrodidae), from Hawaii.
      
Comparisons at the LC50 showed up to 24-fold resistance to acephate, 18-fold resistance to methomyl, and 4-fold resistance to permethrin.
      
Acephate and methomyl were used more often than permethrin.
      
Toxicity of acephate to larvae of gypsy moth as a function of host plant and bioassay method
      
Larvae treated orally with acephate, however, were slightly more susceptible when reared on Douglas-fir (LC50, 20.3 ppm) than when reared on alder (LC50, 27.0 ppm).
      
 

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