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Cloning, high-level expression, and characterization of the somatotropin (ST) gene of an indigenous Nili-Ravi breed of water buffalo Bubalus bubalis (BbST) are described.
      
Spermatozoa of a bull of the Britanofrizskaya breed were used in the experiments.
      
Gorbatov Red breed was monomorphic at the microsatellite locus with the only allele 164 bp in length.
      
In Gorbatov Red breed of dairy type with good beef qualities and low milk-fat yield, lower level of heterozygosity for PRLgene was demonstrated compared to Ayrshire and Black Pied breeds that have high milk-fat yield.
      
Structural Organization of Gene Pool by Immunogenetic Markers in the Ukrainskaya Stepnaya Belaya Breed of Pigs
      
Typical gene combinations (complex genotypes) of this breed were detected, and the main breed-specific parameters of distribution of genetic markers were described.
      
The molecular-genetic markers used in the analysis of the genetic relationships between the sheep breeds and breed types were shown to objectively reflect their breeding history and evolution.
      
Integrally, each of the studied gene pools had a specific profile of gene frequencies reflecting breeding specificity, breed history, and genetic differentiation of breeds.
      
For comparison, windhounds of two West-European breeds (Whippet and Greyhound) and single dogs of other breed types (shepherd, terriers, mastiffs, and bird dogs) were examined.
      
Genetic diversity indices were calculated for each breed group and each marker type and were used to construct dendrograms of genetic similarity.
      
In all breed groups, minisatellites and RAPD markers revealed higher genetic diversity as compared with protein markers.
      
The differentiating potentialities of molecular and genetic biochemical markers at the breed level and the origin of the Russian chicken breeds are discussed.
      
Defects of the premolar tooth formula (oligodontia, tooth number reduction) were studied in dogs of the Kerry Blue Terrier breed.
      
On the basis of the long-term observations of 22 334 pedigree animals, the level of genetic polymorphism and basic breed-specific immunogenetic parameters were determined in eight major pig breeds from southern Ukraine.
      
The effect of heterosis was studied in several quantitative traits of clone breed and interbreed silkworm hybrids exposed to electromagnetic irradiation (λ = 1.6 cm, power density 700 μW/cm2) during postdiapause embryonic development.
      
The heterozygosity at the RsaI marker was low (9.4%) in the Russian Black-and-White breed; that at the microsatellite of the bPRL gene was low (3.2-24%) in all breeds examined.
      
The frequency of allele MspI(-) of the bGH gene in the Yaroslavl breed was extremely low (0.02), comparable only with that of the Holstein cattle (0.02).
      
The heterozygosity at the AluI polymorphism was higher than at the MspI polymorphism of the bGH gene and reached 55% in the Yaroslavl breed.
      
The development of the gene pool in the microevolution of Sus scrofa and the role of heterozygosity in the breed-forming process
      
The Yaroslavl breed had the highest frequencies of CSN3 allele B and genotype BB (0.50 and 0.23, respectively).
      
 

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