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We used a detailed questionnaire to assess the development of the neurological symptoms and the disturbances of bladder and bowel function of each patient.
      
A male with clinical and laboratory signs of Addison's disease (AD) developed at age 22 a slowly progressing paraplegia with slight sensory deficits in both legs and bladder and sphincter dysfunctions; he died at age 24 in an AD crisis.
      
Neurological examination revealed spasticity and pareses to be the most important disturbances followed by ataxia and bladder/bowel problems.
      
Evoked urethral and anal responses are produced by electrical stimulation of penis, bladder neck and anus.
      
Latency and duration of the responses after bladder neck and anal stimulation are greatly dependent on stimulus parameters, suggesting a polysynaptic reflex; penile stimulation probably involves an oligosynaptic pathway.
      
Prevalence of bowel dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis and bladder dysfunction
      
The close proximity of those neural pathways which control the bladder to those which control anorectal function might be expected to lead to a high coexistence of bladder and bowel symptoms.
      
All patients had clinical evidence of spinal cord disease with varying degrees of impaired mobility and sufficiently severe disturbance of bladder control to seek medical advice.
      
Whereas bladder dysfunction in MS is clearly related to spinal cord disease, the neurological basis for the bowel dysfunction is less clear.
      
We describe a patient with adult polyglucosan body disease (APBD) who presented with a dementia of frontal lobe type (FLD), with a neurogenic bladder but no symptoms of sensory motor peripheral neuropathy.
      
Bladder disturbances, pain, sensory abnormalities and involvement of both upper and lower motor neurons were commonly observed.
      
Among the vesicosphincteric dysfunctions, bladder hyperreflexia was the most common pattern with remarkable differences between diseases.
      
The prevalence and nature of bladder and bowel dysfunction were examined in a population-based study of 221 patients with multiple sclerosis who returned postal questionnaires.
      
This review presents the neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropharmacology and pathophysiology of the urinary bladder and sexual organs, and the biological mechanisms underlying urogenital dysfunction in MS patients.
      
Additional findings consisted of gaze palsy and squinting (28), bladder and bowel disturbances (21), visual loss (20) and blindness (4), hearing loss (15), ataxia (11), nystagmus (9), muscle weakness (5) and paresthesias (3).
      
Here, we present a 27-year-old woman who suffered from subacute onset of bladder paresis.
      
On urodynamic studies, all patients showed features of atonic bladder with or without detrusor hyperactivity.
      
Although these cases have a benign course, management of the acute urinary retention is necessary to avoid bladder injury due to overdistension.
      
The first promising data were published on bladder disorders, especially with regard to detrusor sphincter dyssynergia and detrusor hyperreflexia.
      
Bladder or bowel dysfunction or impairment of sexual performance is highly distressing for most MS patients,whereas the clinical relevance of other autonomic symptoms is less clear.
      
 

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