concepts 
Based on continuously solidifying theories and clinical practice, many advanced concepts with applicable clinical frameworks have been established, thus making splenic surgery an indispensable division in modern surgery.


In both cases, of general P systems and of spiking neural P systems, we introduce the fundamental concepts, give a few examples, then recall the types of results and of applications.


The concepts "programming", "compiling" and "running" of software in common sense are extended from "desktop" to "network".


Focusing on the traditional principle of physical energy utilization, new integration concepts for combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system were identified, and corresponding systems were investigated.


China's ambitious nuclear power program motivates the country's nuclear community to develop advanced reactor concepts beyond generation III to ensure a longterm, stable, and sustainable development of nuclear power.


Finally, the unified intelligent form selection model combined with concepts of ES, CBR, KDD and artificially intelligent beautification is proposed.


Results about algorithmic complexity of various problems related to the generation of formal concepts, hypotheses, classifications, and implications.


Concepts of economic irreversibility and capital dissipation are defined and conditions for minimal dissipation are derived.


The key concepts of space dynamics (invariance and attractivity of nontrivial sets), stability in part of variables, and partial stability of smooth nonlinear systems are compared.


System laws as a whole and identification theory are regarded as subsystems for different functions and directly related concepts and indirectly related problems and methods of control theory.


Main methods and concepts of mathematical modeling of traffic flows were reviewed.


This distinction of the network enables one to adapt and develop the concepts of the macrosystem approach for studying the spacetime evolution of the GRID state.


This approach can be characterized as a fusion of the concepts of absolute safety and acceptable risk.


The wellknown models and concepts of functional testing of microprocessors are described.


A generalized interpretation is given to the reliability concepts so that the influence of different random actions (perturbations) on the structure of technical systems can be taken into account within a unified methodological approach.


We introduce the main concepts of formal verification on the RTL and give a brief overview of existing techniques.


Network interaction stimulation when the principal applies the concepts of the Nash, pairwise, hybrid, and strong stabilities to predict the behavior of agents is studied.


Concepts of a discrete Markov flow and discretetime Markov service are defined.


A unified approach to decision making with extremal manycriteria models, expert estimates, and voting is developed on the basis of reference and distance concepts and taxonomy methods.


The introduced concepts are used for solving the problem on periodic oscillations of controlled objects described by the system of differential equations and by the system of differential inclusions.

