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ureteral
Diagnosis and treatment of primary ureteral carcinoma-A report of 15 cases
      
Fifteen cases with primary ureteral carcinomas are reported with a review of the literature.
      
The diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ureteral fibroepithelial polyps
      
OBJECTIVE To study the clinical pathologic characteristics and differential diagnosis of ureteral fibroepithelial polyps.
      
These risks include significant blood loss, rectal injury, ureteral injury, thromboembolic events, urinary incontinence, impotence, and a perioperative death rate of less than 1%.
      
Obstruction of one or both ureters is managed with either ureteral stenting or nephrostomy drainage.
      
Laparoscopic experiences in urologic reconstruction, diag-nosis and treatment of the nonpalpable testis, renal surgery, ureteral reimplantation, varicocelectomy, hydrocelectomy, and herniorrhaphy are reviewed.
      
The use of laparoscopic extravesical ureteral reimplantation awaits further develop-ment in both open and subtrigonal injection techniques.
      
Open ureteral reimplanta-tion remains the standard for surgical care if surgery is necessary.
      
Although the diagnosis of a VVF usually can be readily made in an outpatient setting, care must be exercised not to overlook a second fistula or concomitant ureteral injury.
      
Biomaterials such as urethral catheters, urethral stents, and ureteral stents are commonly used in patients with urologic disorders.
      
We focus on urethral catheters, urethral stents, and ureteral stents.
      
We discuss issues of biocompatibility and new approaches to biocompatibility testing, biomaterials currently available for use, new biomaterials and coatings, and novel ureteral stent designs.
      
Furthermore, recently published reports that these materials have been seeded with chondrocytes to create corporal rods for penile prostheses and stents for ureteral and urethral stricture disease are discussed.
      
Molecular biology of ureteral bud and trigonal development
      
Advances in molecular biology have provided valuable insight into the development of the urinary tract, particularly ureteral bud formation.
      
Reciprocal inductive signals between the ureteral bud and growing kidney are crucial for normal development.
      
The Wolffian duct serves as the site of origin of the ureteral bud and forms distal excretory ducts that are incorporated into the developing bladder to become the trigone.
      
Vesicoureteral reflux and renal dysplasia can result from abnormal position of the ureteral orifice on the trigone.
      
This review highlights important discoveries in the field of molecular biology as it relates to the development of normal and abnormal ureteral bud formation.
      
 

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