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physical dose
Excess risk of radiation-induced cancer at the distal part of proton radiation fields can thus be explained using SCCP calculations on the basis of the physical dose distributions.
      
Although shielding may be effective, in some cases, in reducing the physical dose of particle radiation, our cytogenetic results showed that the biological impact of the particle beam remain unchanged.
      
The number of chromosomal and chromatid breaks, deletions, as well as fragments, have been followed in correlation to the physical dose as assessed by the specific radioactivity of DNA.
      
The definition accepted in the USSR of the roentgen as the unit of physical dose
      
A BNCE of 4.6% in physical dose was determined for a 10×10?cm2 field, and of 10.4% for a 20×20?cm2 one.
      
As mentioned, methods are well known for computing the physical dose received anywhere in the body from a given beam con guration.
      
Cs, a calculation of the biologically-equivalent dose would result in a significantly lower physical dose.
      
Differences between the effective dose and the average physical dose are dependent on the magnitude of the nonuniformity and can be large.
      
However, for the first time in radiation therapy the treatment planning is based on biology and not only on the physical dose optimization.
      
It comes to multiply the physical dose obtained by the computational models.
      
In order to deliver a uniform biological dose over the entire SOBP it is necessary to reduce the physical dose at larger depths.
      
In other words, even small changes in the exact dose fractionation and physical dose distribution can cause major changes in toxicity.
      
In addition, no correlation between the stable CAs and physical dose estimates or variables corresponding to high dose exposure was seen.
      
The technique can be used in combination with physical measurement in a water phantom to re-evaluate the physical dose in tissue.
      
 

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