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cold start
Characteristics of high-power radiating imploding discharge with cold start
      
A qualitative model of the dynamics of a multiterawatt radiating Z-pinch with cold start and high rate of current rise is proposed.
      
The most important consequence of cold start is that spatially nonuniform plasma production is prolonged to almost the entire current rise time.
      
In this case, plasma inhomogeneities arising due to a "cold start" and prolonged plasma production have a decisive impact on the final parameters of a hyper-terawatt Z-pinch.
      
A study on characteristics and control strategies of cold start operation for improvement of harmful exhaust emissions in SI eng
      
Emission regulations for automobiles have become more stringent and the improvement of emission during cold start has been a major key issue to meet these regulations.
      
Among many kinds of factors that affect cold start operation, ignition timing is crucial to improve emission characteristics due to the influence on exhaust gas temperature.
      
Recent progress in variable valve timing allows optimized valve event strategies under various ranges of engine operating conditions including cold start.
      
This study investigates effects of ignition and exhaust valve timing on exhaust gas temperature, combustion stability and emission characteristics through cold start bench tests of an SI engine.
      
Parametric study on the fuel film breakup of a cold start PFI engine
      
On the cold start problem in transient simulations with coupled atmosphere-ocean models
      
The start of the integration at a later time from a climate state which, in contrast to the true climate, is initially in equilibrium then induces a cold start error.
      
Using linear response theory a general expression for the cold start error is derived.
      
The cold start error estimations based on a CO2 doubling experiment and on an experiment with gradually increasing CO2 (scenario A) are very similar and explain about two thirds of the coupled model retardation relative to the IPCC results.
      
Studies with simplified models have shown that this "cold start" error leads to a serious underestimation of the anthropogenic global warming.
      
The early starting date alleviates some of the cold start problems.
      
The reduction of the "cold start" error in the early industrialization experiment makes it possible to separate the near-surface temperature signal from the noise about one decade earlier than in the experiment starting in 1985.
      
Influence of natural variability and the cold start problem on the simulated transient response to increasing CO2
      
Results from an ensemble of four experiments which include the historical increase, warm start (WS) experiments, are compared with an ensemble of four experiments which do not include the historical increase, cold start (CS) experiments.
      
The difference in response between a WS experiment and a CS experiment is defined as the cold start error.
      
 

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