direct calculation 
Together with traditional maximization of the Lundberg characteristic coefficient R is considered the problem of direct calculation of insurer's ruin probability ?r (x) as an initialcapital function x under the prescribed level of netretention r.


With the use of dispersion forces as an example, it is demonstrated by direct calculation that a correction to the Gibbs formula for the variations of surface tension can be substantial for nanoparticles that approach molecular sizes.


A highspeed precision digital phase meter with direct calculation of the signal phase


The AD mutation rate was estimated by direct calculation.


The method is based on direct calculation of the dynamics of photosynthate accumulation and absorption rates of nitrogen compounds in the plant root system.


This approach for the direct calculation of the field from the superposition of the potentials of individual magnetic charges enables the reconstruction of most possible configurations of the surface magnetic field of a star.


A program set for direct calculation of vibrational states of crystal structures in a molecular approach


A direct calculation shows that the asymptote of the electric field of a charged impurity at lattice points can differ strongly from the one given by the Coulomb equation written for a homogeneous polarizable medium.


Results obtained by direct calculation and by invariants analysis are compared.


For a number of arguments, the direct calculation of the kernels requires that a very large number of terms in the sum be taken into consideration.


The equations allow direct calculation of the electricfield intensity of the pulses as a function of the spatial coordinates of the observation point and time.


The atombond electronegativity equalization model is then proposed for the direct calculation of the total molecular energy and the charge distribution of large molecules.


The determination of diffusion coefficient allows direct calculation of bulk concentration avoiding calibration with a standard solution.


A Computer program is described which makes possible the direct calculation of the percentage of active substances or of contaminations on the basis of the reflectance values measured during quantitative evaluation of thin layer chromatograms.


The linear correlation between the static distribution coefficients and the RM values permit the direct calculation of the distribution coefficient from the chromatographic data.


The approach presented allows direct calculation of the enhancement factor in various configurations.


The first one is based on a direct calculation, the second based on a Sturmian approach.


The global expression allows the direct calculation of the signal time profile in a transient CARS experiment once a model is assumed for the laser pulse shape.


Direct calculation of the Kmatrix for pion electroproduction in the delta channel


These equations permit the direct calculation of the mass operator or of the vertex as functionals of the dressed propagator.

