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self-esteem
No differences were found between the two systems on patients attitudes toward services, on a self-esteem scale, or on a social adjustment scale.
      
It was also found that low self-esteem and lack of support from a core tie at the time of the crisis was associated with a considerably increased risk.
      
Most of them had low self-esteem, and they appeared to confide in inappropriate and unreliable sources of support at time of crisis.
      
Three definitions of vulnerability were studied: high neuroticism (N), low self-esteem (SE), and an external locus of control (LC).
      
Research on the efficacy of measures of self-esteem to predict onset of depression has produced highly variable results.
      
A major purpose of the execrise is to develop positive and negative indices of the social environment that can be used to elucidate the aetiological role of self-esteem in the development of depression.
      
This is the last of a series of three papers dealing with the role of self-esteem in the onset of clinical depression.
      
It is concluded that self-esteem (primarily in terms of a negative measure) does play a significant role.
      
The present paper, the fourth and last in a series examining the role of self-esteem in depressive disorder in the general population, deals with recovery/improvement from a disorder at a case level.
      
In this instance unlike that for the chronic conditions, self-esteem was measured outside the episode of depression.
      
Low self-esteem and a related dysfunctional cognitive style were the personality variables most clearly linked with PBI scores, with links persisting after partialling out state levels of depression.
      
On each occasion, the subjects completed self-report ratings of experience of "normal depression" and measures of neuroticism, trait depression, self-esteem and sex role.
      
The number of symptoms was correlated with neuroticism, self-esteem and trait depression scores, and with gender but not sex role.
      
The number of episodes was related to trait depression and self-esteem but not neuroticism.
      
Other tools used were: Life Events and Chronic Difficulties, Global Assessment Functioning in the 6 months prior to the onset of episode, Brown Rating Scale for Self-Esteem and Mannheim Interview of Social Support.
      
Furthermore, low self-esteem and external locus of control (low sense of mastery) are both associated with suicidal thoughts.
      
Principal components factor analysis revealed that the characteristics of adolescent depression were depressive/anxious mood, psychomotor retardation, loss of self-esteem, somatic symptoms and decreased appetite and libido.
      
Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness
      
Methods: Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory.
      
It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness.
      
 

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