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in the catalyst
An increase in palladium sulfide concentration in the catalyst leads to an increase in the reaction rate per 1 g of the catalyst but has only a slight effect on the specific reaction rate of hydrogenation calculated per 1 g of Pd.
      
The presence of a phase boundary in the catalyst is responsible for the V2O5 → V2O3 transition without the formation of intermediate structures.
      
In the presence of MoO3 and V2O5 in the catalyst, anatase particles underwent agglomeration as the temperature was increased.
      
The selectivity, activity, and mechanical strength of the composites depend on the calcination temperature and on the place of the hydriding step in the catalyst preparation procedure.
      
Two types of molybdenum-containing particles are stabilized in the catalyst in the course of nonoxidative methane conversion at 750°C.
      
The 3D distribution of the active component in the catalyst grain has been studied: particles hidden in micropores have been directly observed, and the size of the pores connecting internal cavities with the exterior has been estimated.
      
The heating of a Mn-containing sample in air to 1373 K had no negative effect on the conversion of CH4; an insignificant decrease in the catalyst activity (by ~10%) was observed only on heating above 1473 K.
      
A method is suggested for determining kinetic parameters of arbitrary complex heterogeneous catalytic reactions under conditions such that the reaction rate is significantly affected by heat and mass transfer to and in the catalyst pellets.
      
According to XPS data, palladium in the catalyst was stabilized in the following three phases: metal (Eb(Pd 3d5/2) = 334.8 eV), oxide (Eb(Pd 3d5/2) = 336.8 eV), and "interaction" (Eb(Pd 3d5/2) = 335.8 eV) phases.
      
On-line monitoring of the gas temperature in the catalyst bed and of the residual CO concentration at different reaction conditions made it possible to observe the ignition and quenching of the catalyst surface, including transitional regimes.
      
The evolution of the temperature distribution in the catalyst bed in the ignition regime and the specific features of the steady-state and transitional regimes are considered, including the effect of the sample history.
      
The activation energies of this reaction were correlated with the strength of ligand bonding to the metal atom in the catalyst molecule.
      
The coefficients of heat transfer to the internal heat exchanger and the radial thermal conductivity of the catalyst bed are shown to theoretically strongly affect the thermal conditions in the catalyst bed.
      
During the hydride transfer in the catalyst-borane-3,3-dimethyl butanone-2 adduct to form the catalyst-alkoxyborane adduct, the hydride transfer and the formation of the B-O-B-N 4-member ring in the catalyst-alkoxyborane adduct happen simultaneously.
      
This implied that the diffusion of large molecules of heavy oil in the catalyst was facilitated due to the presence of the mesoporous pores and hence higher activity and selectivity to middle distillates.
      
Kinetic study showed that polymerization is first order in monomer concentration and fractional order (0.78) in the catalyst.
      
The proposed continuous surface modification process (CSMP) is advantageous for the handling of particles in the catalyst preparation process.
      
Presence of Cu+ cations in the catalyst is evidenced by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES).
      
This effect is likely due to the fact that the impregnated catalyst sooner comes to a steady-state operating regime because of the enhanced mass transfer in the catalyst pellets during the process.
      
The disagreement between the latter two techniques, resulting in a small-angle determination of the average size of the particles that is about half that of TEM in the catalyst with the higher Rh loading, is acknowledged and discussed.
      
 

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