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surgery alone
Four patients with intracerebral vascular malformations underwent preoperative butylcyanoacrylate embolization via a calibrated leak catheter, in order to reduce the risks of surgery alone.
      
In cT4-rectal carcinoma disease-free margins often cannot be obtained by primary surgery, and even if total en bloc resection is accomplished, local failure remains high with surgery alone.
      
Meningiomas are usually managed with surgery alone; radiation therapy is used if the meningioma is malignant or recurs.
      
Early stage CRC is potentially curable by surgery alone, but about 40% of these patients will develop recurrent disease.
      
Thus, ongoing worldwide trials maintain control arms of chemoradiotherapy alone and of surgery alone in the advanced and early disease subsets, respectively.
      
Randomized trials demonstrate that chemoradiation followed by surgery decreases local relapse as compared with surgery alone; however, the effect on overall survival remains uncertain.
      
This benefit is less clear in stages I and IIA, for which surgery alone is thus a reasonable option.
      
Preoperative chemotherapy without radiation also provides a survival benefit compared with surgery alone, but data are insufficient to conclude it is superior to preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
      
Surgery alone (if disease is pathologic stage IE) or surgery followed by chemotherapy (for disease that is pathologic stage II or higher) has more data defining expected outcomes.
      
Thus, a microadenoma was assumed or proven in three patients, of whom two were cured by surgery alone.
      
Twenty patients previously treated with concomitant chemoradiotherapy (n=14), surgery alone (n=2), surgery plus radiotherapy (n=2), or concomitant chemoradiotherapy + surgey (n=2) were enrolled.
      
One (MALT) patient underwent surgery alone; three patients surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy (two FCC, one PTCL); three patients surgery and chemotherapy (one MALT, one FCC, one LBCL); and two chemotherapy alone (one LBCL, one MZL).
      
Surgery alone cannot cure any patient with pancreatic cancer but may in the future in conjunction with these new approaches.
      
Patients with N2/T3 NSCLC have a poor prognosis when treated by surgery alone since micrometastases result in relapse in the majority of cases.
      
A recent meta-analysis suggested an absolute survival benefit of 5% at five years for postoperative cisplatin-based chemotherapy as compared to surgery alone.
      
A surgeon performing open surgery alone or just using arthroscopic measures cannot cover the full spectrum of modern shoulder surgery.
      
Only small, superficial, well-differentiated or strictly intracompartmental lesions should be treated by surgery alone.
      
The 5-year survival rate was significantly better after preoperative radiotherapy than after surgery alone.
      
Surgery alone often fails to achieve local control in advanced gastrointestinal tumors.
      
Methods: Retrospectively, two groups of patients (n = 2 × 85) with rectal carcinoma curatively treated by surgery alone were studied (median follow-up: 6.1 years).
      
 

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