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urethral
The catheter enters the bladder and is then removed at a constant velocity while a fluid is constantly pumped (infused) into it by a syringe pump at a steady rate and then flows out through the gap between the catheter and the urethral wall.
      
Substantial new findings have been published on alternatives to urethral catheters and new catheter materials.
      
In a newborn with anal atresia and urethral valves an incomplete VACTERL association, was diagnosed and a colon anus praeter was placed.
      
Evoked urethral and anal responses are produced by electrical stimulation of penis, bladder neck and anus.
      
Evaluation of vesico-urethral and sweating function in disorders presenting with parkinsonism
      
Urethral sphincter electromyography did not indicate denervation in any patient of either group.
      
Delayed or incomplete relaxation of the urethral sphincter during micturition was observed in seven patients with Parkinson's disease (58%) and in two patients of the other group (20%).
      
A group of women with otherwise unexplained urinary retention occurring as an isolated phenomenon have been shown to have abnormal urethral sphincters, as assessed by electromyography, transvaginal ultrasonographic volume and pressure profile.
      
Penetration of ampicillin into urethral and cervical secretions after oral administration of bacampicillin
      
The median ampicillin concentration in the male urethra one hour after the single dose of bacampicillin plus probenecid was 2.0 μg/ml of urethral secretion and increased to 3.2 μg/ml two hours after administration of the antibiotic.
      
In the female urethra, the median concentrations of ampicillin were 1.5 μg/ml and 2.3 μg/ml of urethral secretion one and two hours, respectively, after the same dosage as above.
      
69 patients were symptomatic but did not have a significant bacteriuria ("urethral syndrome").
      
The aetiology of the "urethral syndrome" (dysuria and/or frequency without a significant bacteriuria) is still obscure although it is becoming clear what suggested possible causes are not responsible for it.
      
All examined patients were free from symptoms of urethral or prostatic inflammation.
      
For example, adhesion to the urethral and bladder mucosa could be facilitated by pili and their expression could be advantageous in the early phase of prostatitis.
      
To investigate the diagnostic value of a direct immunofluorescence test (DIF-test), urethral samples and first catch urine (FCU) from 153 male patients attending an outpatient clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) were studied.
      
Of the male patients, 40 (26.1%) had a positive urethral culture, 39 (25.5%) had a positive urethral DIF-test, and 32 (20.9%) were positive in urine according to the DIF-test.
      
The sensitivity and the specificity of the DIF-test in male urine specimens were 75% and 98.2%, respectively, as compared with the chlamydial culture, and 69.2% and 95.6%, respectively, as compared to the DIF-test of the urethral samples.
      
Out of the positive urethral samples, 31% had >amp;lt;5 elementary bodies (EBs) and 41% >amp;gt;10 EBs, detected by the DIF-test.
      
The corresponding data for FCU were 47% and 22%, indicating a smaller number of chlamydiae in urine than in urethral samples.
      
 

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