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niche space
Coevolutionary motion and swarming in a niche space model of
      
In this context, we present a simple model for the co-evolution of species in a common niche space, where the fitness of each species is defined via the network of interactions with all other species.
      
the pairwise distances between species in niche space.
      
The existence of a dual symbiosis could thus confer greater environmental tolerance and increased niche space to the mytilid host in the stochastic hydrothermal vent habitat.
      
Findings suggest that both species niche compression and assemblage niche space increase when habitat complexity is greater and flow velocity is lower in this tropical lowland river.
      
Further mutations of hormone and receptor molecules are allowed under the condition that they remain confined to the niche space.
      
If the consequent mutation of one molecule change its shape to fill the niche space, further mutations without function loss will become less probable.
      
Without the niche space, the phase of fast evolution is closed and both genes become conserved.
      
Then a single environmental parameter is represented as a point inn-dimensional space, with the aid of the Shannon sampling theorem, and niche space is again partitioned by hyperspheres.
      
Diversity and diffusion in multidimensional niche space
      
The results of an earlier effort to provide a geometrical analysis of Hutchinsonian niche space are extended.
      
The concept of diversity of a species in niche space is introduced and the maximization of this diversity provides a rationale for a within-niche fitness distribution which is Gaussian.
      
Niche expansion is seen as a consequence of diffusion in niche space, and an evolutionary version of the Volterra competition equations is proposed as a way to relate niche geometry with population dynamics.
      
Mean overlaps between species neighbors in niche space, cluster analyses, and ordinations of species revealed a guild for habitat, bait and habitat × bait.
      
Model simulations indicated pronounced changes in the temporal and vertical availability of fish thermal niche space.
      
Perch thermal niche space expanded for air temperature increases of up to 4°C, but largely disappeared for the 9°C increase.
      
Convergence in foraging methods between the island Blue Tit and the mainland Coal Tit can be explained without considering current interspecific competition as a determinant of niche space.
      
Recent arrivals at the family level are mostly of zoochorous species of forest tree, indicating (subject to the effects of disturbance) a continuing increase in potential niche space within the island interiors.
      
Niche structure and dinoflagellate competition for niche space are considered.
      
At the microbial level, diversity may expand niche space to a degree that is not possible in plant and animal communities.
      
 

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