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During the last three years, more than thirty companies - based in the electronics, bio-pharmaceuticals, garment, and home electronics appliance industries - have been studied in the UK and China.
      
Leakage currents, tiny currents flowing from an everyday-life appliance through the body to the ground, can cause a non-adequate perception (called electrocutaneous sensation, ECS) or even pain and should be avoided.
      
Effects, side effects and quality of life associated with treatment of sleep-disordered breathing using a functional appliance-a
      
Long-term development in the mandible and incisor crowding with and without an orthodontic stabilising appliance
      
A comparison was made of Class ll:1 malocclusion with extraction in the upper arch in 35 individuals in whom a fixed orthodontic, appliance was used in the upper arch only and 26 individuals with fixed appliances in both jaws.
      
During treatment the orthodontic appliance in the lower arch relieved crowding.
      
During fixed appliance therapy, one group was treated according to the precepts of the straight wire concept (FPA; n=32) while the other was treated with conventional full edgewise mechanics (PPA; n=29).
      
Radiographs of the maxillary incisors were made before and after active treatment with fixed appliance using the bisecting angle technique.
      
For the second phase of the treatment, a straight-wire appliance was used for an average treatment time of 1.3 years.
      
Condylar restoration after early TMJ fractures and functional appliance therapy
      
The aim of this study was to measure quantitatively and to analyze the process of condylar restoration during and after functional appliance therapy with an activator in children and juveniles who had sustained condylar fractures.
      
The appliance is relatively comfortable with good vertical retention even without headgear.
      
The first molars were extracted and an Edgewise-appliance was used.
      
The number of students displaying a visceral swallowing pattern was significantly smaller with a roughened plate with palatal folds and papilla than with a polished, smooth appliance.
      
A roughened, individually shaped appliance with palatal folds and palatal papilla should therefore be used after myofunctional therapy and in cases where disturbance of tongue function by the appliance is not desirable.
      
An effective treatment approach was demonstrated: a modified Herbst appliance used simultaneously with fixed appliances in the maxilla.
      
Correction of the distal occlusion was achieved in all patients by means of the Herbst appliance, which was removed after an average time period of 6.4±0.2 months.
      
The aim of this study was to analyze and to describe the condition of the lateral pterygoid muscles during and after functional appliance therapy in children who had sustained condylar fractures.
      
Throughout this period the appliance is in either direct or indirect contact with the oral mucosa.
      
In a prospective plaque regrowth study focusing on oral hygiene during fixed appliance therapy 12 adolescent patients (mean age 14.1±1.5 years) were evaluated twice over 2-day test periods.
      
 

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