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beam current
For a strong guiding magnetic field, the critical beam current is described by relationships derived under the assumption that the motion of the beam electrons is one-dimensional.
      
The dependence of this force on the channel conductivity and the distance from the beam front is found for concrete parameters of the relativistic electron beam and various values of the beam current rise rate.
      
The low primary electron beam current (0.1 μA) minimizes the electronstimulated effects on the object being studied.
      
Depending on the geometric parameter la (the anode length to diameter ratio) and pressure, maxima are observed in the discharge current and in the ion beam current extracted from an aperture at the center of the cathode.
      
The beam current is 1-2 A, and the cathode voltage is 5-7 kV.
      
It is shown that the formation of the electron cloud and beam current pulse front for a time of ≥2 ns is a possibility.
      
A method for efficiently controlling the electron-beam current is proposed.
      
An REB with the electron energy Ee=1 MeV, beam current Ib=10-22 kA, and pulse duration t=60 ns was generated by the Tonus accelerator and, then, injected into a 0.1-m-diameter PR filled with air.
      
The transportation efficiency of the beam was determined as the ratio Ib/Iinj, where Iinj is the beam current measured at the point of injection into the PR.
      
Maps of dynamic modes on the beam current-accelerating voltage plane are presented.
      
As the beam current and amount of feedback increase, regular and chaotic oscillation modes are found to alternate in a complex manner.
      
Additional delay is introduced into the feedback circuit, owing to which the output signal amplitude affects the electron beam current that enters into the interaction space.
      
The optimization is carried out by varying the parameters specifying a given parametric multiplet, and its efficiency is found from a quality criterion that takes into account the beam current for given sizes of the spot and target.
      
Composite layers made in sapphire by implantation of 40-keV Cu+ ions at a dose of 1 × 1017 cm-2 and an ion beam current density varying from 2.5 to 10 μA/cm2 are studied.
      
A hydrogen ion source designed for the injector of a 16-MeV linear proton accelerator with an average beam current of ~100 μA is presented.
      
It is shown that electrons with an energy from several tens to several hundreds of kiloelectronvolts (which is lower than a maximal voltage across the gap) make a major contribution to the beam current measured behind thin foils.
      
The contribution from electrons with an anomalously high energy (exceeding a maximal voltage across the gap) to the beam current is shown to be insignificant (less than 5%).
      
Techniques of measuring the subnanosecond electron beam current and mechanisms generating fast and runaway electrons in volume high-pressure gas discharges are analyzed.
      
Experimental study of the influence of the processes in the ion-beam drift space on beam current measurements
      
The threshold beam current density for the excitation of a beam-plasma discharge is found to increase with accelerating voltage and gas pressure.
      
 

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