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beam current
Calculation of the electron beam current in a vacuum diode with a magnetically insulated edge cathode
      
As follows from estimates, the recently found fact that the beam current in gas media peaks earlier than in a vacuum may be explained by a rapid travel of the electron multiplication wave through the background ionized by the precursor pulse.
      
The dependences of the generation power on the decelerating potential and on the beam current are analyzed.
      
It is shown that, when the open-circuit voltage of the pulser exceeds an optimum value, the beam current amplitude and the gap voltage under which the UAEB is generated decrease.
      
The efficiency of nonequilibrium electron trapping by capture centers in alkali halide crystals, quartz, and polymethyl methacrylate exposed to an intense electron beam with a beam current density of about 20 A/cm2 is studied.
      
The FWHM of the beam current varies from 200 ps to several nanoseconds.
      
Data on production of electron beams with ~200 keV electrons and above ~100 A beam current in a diode with an explosive-emission cathode at background gas pressures ~10-2-10-1 torr are presented.
      
Microdroplets are emitted above a threshold value of the beam current, and oscillations of the ion current with a frequency of order 10 MHz are excited at the same time.
      
The optimized technique was used to form the volume parts of a microelectromotor structure by etching a PI film with an oxygen ion beam (beam current density j=0.5 mA/cm2; ion extraction energy U=800 V).
      
It was established that the energy efficiency of the additional discharge acting upon the beam current is greater than that of the beam proper.
      
Metal-nanoparticle-containing composite layers were synthesized by implantation of 60 keV Ag+ ions into a soda-lime silicate glass to a dose of 3×1016 ion/cm2 at an ion beam current density of 3 μA/cm2 and a substrate temperature of 35°C.
      
Sapphire-based composite layers implanted with 40-keV Cu+ ions to a total dose of 1.0×1017 cm-2 at an ion beam current density varied from 2.5 to 10 μA/cm2 were studied using Rutherford backscattering and optical reflectance methods.
      
At a fixed electron beam energy of 230 keV, an increase in the electron beam current from 10 to 45 A led to the transition from a stationary to periodic self-modulated generation regime.
      
The modulation period was about 16 ns, while the relative amplitude of the modulation increased in proportion to the beam current, reaching up to 90%.
      
The parameters of an open discharge operating without anode grid at elevated beam current densities are studied.
      
Effect of the ion beam current density on the formation of implanted metal nanoparticles in a dielectric matrix
      
An increase in the ion beam current density leads to the formation of nanoparticles of a greater size as a result of the glass substrate heating and due to an increase in the diffusion mobility of implanted silver atoms.
      
These results suggest the possibility of controlling the dimensions of implanted nanoparticles in dielectrics by means of variation of the ion beam current density during the process.
      
We have studied the possibility of increasing the onset threshold for automodulation caused by a growth in the beam current in gyro-backward-wave tubes.
      
Neither compensation currents nor the electron beam current can account for the photoelectron mechanism of the open discharge, despite still existing opposite assumptions.
      
 

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