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beam current
A beam current amplitude of up to ~20 A at an electron energy of ~70 keV was obtained in an air-filled diode.
      
The instability is related to an aperiodic modulation of the beam current density in a medium with negative dielectric permittivity.
      
In a diode filled with air at atmospheric pressure, a beam current amplitude above 240 A was obtained at a pulse duration (FWHM) of ~0.2 s and a beam current density of ~40 A/cm2.
      
This may result in a decrease in the amplitude of the beam current at a pulse duration below the time resolution of the detection system.
      
The output current Iout of a magnetized annular electron beam transported in a homogeneous drift tube of a SINUS-7 setup has been studied as a function of the injected beam current Iinj.
      
It is established that, to within the experimental uncertainty, a virtual cathode (VC) is formed when the injected beam current exceeds the corresponding limiting Ilim.
      
The plasma cathode operates under technical vacuum conditions (air, 0.1 Pa) and ensures high stability and reproducibility of the beam current pulses.
      
The values of the critical beam current density are determined.
      
It is shown that subnanosecond pulses of the beam current in helium, hydrogen, neon, nitrogen, argon, methane, sulfur hexafluoride, krypton, and xenon can be obtained both at atmospheric pressure and at a pressure of several units or dozens of Torr.
      
In particular, a beam current density above 2 kA/cm2 behind the foil at a pulse duration (FWHM) of 250 ps has been obtained in helium-filled diode.
      
On the passage from the regime of ultrashort avalanche electron beam formation to the vacuum diode regime, the beam current pulse amplitude decreases, while both the beam pulse duration (FWHM) and the pulse front width increase.
      
In the case of platinum, the microwave heating led to an increase in the average ion charge from 2 to 7, while the maximum platinum ion charge reached 10 and the total ion beam current amounted to 300 mA.
      
At a beam energy of 8-9 keV, the minimum threshold beam current density was 0.4-0.5 A/cm2.
      
Discharge current and ultrashort avalanche electron beam current in a volume nanosecond gas discharge in inhomogeneous electric
      
Waveforms of the electron beam current pulse with several peaks of subnanosecond duration have been observed.
      
Effect of the retarding electric field on the critical electron-beam current for virtual cathode formation
      
The effect of the 3D axially symmetric magnetic field induced by the beam current is taken into account.
      
It is found that the duration of the beam current in a diode filled with air at atmospheric pressure does not exceed 0.1 ns.
      
It is also shown that the amplitude of the beam current attains maximum with a certain delay after the application of voltage to the discharge gap.
      
The main contribution to the beam current measured behind the foil is related to the runaway electrons, which have energies of tens or hundreds of kiloelectronvolts (supershort avalanche electron beam (SAEB)).
      
 

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