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endoscopic surgery
Motion order system for the end effector of an instrument used in endoscopic surgery
      
Case studies have demonstrated that endoscopic surgery appears to be the optimal approach to ventricular cysts.
      
The most recent minimally invasive approach is natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), which limits morbidity because this surgery does not require incision.
      
We developed a transparent guiding sheath and other surgical instruments for endoscopic surgery and established a novel, ultra-early stage surgical procedure using those instruments.
      
Between 1 October 1994 and 7 May 1995, 46 patients who underwent endoscopic surgery on 55 hands were documented in a prospective study.
      
In comparison to conventional operating technique endoscopic surgery reveals numerous advantages, particular rapid mobilisation and earlier discharge from observation.
      
In the last 10years the use of mechanical stapling devices in endoscopic surgery have found widespread application and acceptance.
      
The technology associated with endoscopic surgery continues to evolve as a result of industrial R >amp;amp; D and research within academic surgical departments with interest in surgical endoscopic and remote handling technology.
      
The imaging clearly delineated an abnormal contour of the ventricular system and intraventricular septa, essential information for surgical planning, including endoscopic surgery.
      
Virtual endoscopy combined with intraoperative neuronavigation for planning of endoscopic surgery in patients with occlusive hyd
      
We assessed the clinical value of MR ventriculoscopy (virtual endoscopy, VE) combined with image-guided frameless stereotaxy for endoscopic surgery of occlusive hydrocephalus and intracranial cysts.
      
Open and endoscopic surgery requires anesthesia and hospitalization.
      
In 30 patients who underwent subsequent endoscopic surgery, surgeons were asked to rank the degree of assistance of the preoperative virtual endoscopy.
      
It has been found effective in the prevention of recurrences after endoscopic surgery as well as in the treatment of residual tumors.
      
Of these clinical pathways, six were implemented for endoscopic surgery, and four and eight were for minor and major surgery, respectively.
      
Eight prominent performance measurements, which were identified as representative indicators of the practice performances, were selected in endoscopic surgery, five in minor surgery, and 11 in major surgery.
      
Between April 1997 and March 1999, 2,883 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic surgery, minor surgery, and major surgery, were evaluated herein.
      
In endoscopic surgery, five of the eight performance measurements improved significantly in the first year of implementation.
      
Control of intraoperative bleeding with hydrostatic pressure during endoscopic surgery
      
Though intracranial endoscopic surgery has several advantages, poor visibility caused by bleeding from the operative field is one of its limitations.
      
 

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