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efl
Exspiratorische Flusslimitation (EFL) w?hrend K?rperbelastung bewirkt eine Verlangsamung der Kontraktion der exspiratorischen Muskeln, was aufgrund der Kraft-Geschwindigkeits-Charakteristik die hier als Druck gemessene Kraft erh?ht.
      
The volume dependence of respiratory resistance (Rrs), usually observed during normal breathing, is expected to be accentuated during expiratory flow limitation (EFL).
      
EFL was provoked by lowering the expiratory pressure and was detected by the application of an additional negative expiratory pressure and by forced oscillations.
      
Both models satisfactorily fitted the data in the absence of EFL.
      
The nonlinear model proved to be more appropriate in the presence of EFL.
      
The coefficient expressing the volume dependence of Rrs (Rvd) was significantly more negative during EFL.
      
Rvd values were highly correlated with the fraction of the tidal volume left to be expired at the onset of EFL.
      
A threshold Rvd value of -1,000 (hPa·s·l-2) detected EFL with high sensitivity and specificity.
      
We conclude that a strongly negative volume dependence of Rrs is a reliable and noninvasive index of EFL during artificial ventilation.
      
On the basis of these data, the Rn7s-6 sequence may be placed within 1.3 centimorgans of Ly-3 and one of the Igk-V-region markers, Igk-Efl.
      
The results are consistent with the gene order (Ly-2, Ly-3)-(Rn7s-6, Igk-Efl)-Igk-Ef2.
      
Analysis of the B6.PL(85NS) congenic strain suggests that the Igk-J locus lies in the neighborhood of the Lyt-2/Lyt-3 loci, approximately 0.30 cM from the V gene segment determining the Igk-VSer and Igk-Efl polymorphisms.
      
Degradation of the veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotic enrofloxacin (EFL) was studied with three strains of Gloeophyllum, basidiomycetous fungi thought to produce extracellular hydroxyl radicals.
      
From each exact molecular mass, the molecular formula was derived for which the most probable chemical structure was postulated, using for guidance 18 known EFL metabolites.
      
These metabolites belonged to five families headed by EFL, its oxidatively decarboxylated or defluorinated congeners, an isatin-, and an anthranilic acid-type derivative.
      
An "exploding" network of diverse EFL congeners produced by Gloeophyllum suggests the broad utility of our model for studying biodegradation.
      
Patterns of major metabolites were surprisingly similar but differed greatly from that provided by Gloeophyllum striatum due to the absence of monohydroxylated EFL congeners and a greater variety of metabolites with a modified piperazine moiety.
      
Of 61 compounds detected, 48 were new, while 13 were known from a pattern of 87 EFL metabolites identified for G.
      
EFL degradation appears to be a common activity among basidiomycetes.
      
A panel of lipid-rich tissues was fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde, infiltrated, and embedded in the water-soluble plastics Technovit 7100, EFL-67, and JB-4.
      
 

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