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initial oxide
The influence of the reaction conditions (dispersity of the initial oxide, temperature, time, and composition of the gas phase in the reaction zone) on the structural characteristics of the crystalline products was studied.
      
Effect of coalescence and of the character of the initial oxide on the photoluminescence of ion-synthesized Si nanocrystals in S
      
Regardless of the composition of the initial oxide mixture, similar reaction products are formed during the reaction.
      
As oxygen vacancies are accumulated (i.e., during reduction), the number of oxygen vacancy-low charge cation complexes in the initial oxide increases.
      
The total composition of the oxide phase in the range of a crystal lattice of a certain type changes continuously from the initial oxide to the end product of reduction, i.e., to the lower oxide or a metal.
      
Before irradiation, it was shown that the sample obtained by postoxidation cooling in N2+O2 exhibited more positive initial oxide charges and larger negative charge-temperature instability than that obtained by postoxidation annealing in N2.
      
But after considering the initial oxide field effect on the irradiation result, the former one is less sensitive to irradiation than the latter one.
      
In spite of the small changes in the initial oxide content, the increase of the pre-polarization time induces a considerable increase of the time needed for the oxide consumption during its interaction with methanol.
      
CoO and NiO predominantly form the vanadate which corresponds to the stoichiometry of the initial oxide mixture.
      
Regeneration does not lead to the initial oxide form of the catalysts completely.
      
In an acid medium, not only does addition take place but the initial oxide isomerizes into a carbonyl compound and to some extent forms trans-1-methylcyclopentane-1,2-diol.
      
With isopropanol, in an alkaline medium the initial oxide is recovered and in an acid medium only the isomerization product is formed.
      
X-ray diffraction and visual examination showed that the initial oxide form is a glassy solid and that the lattice order increases with temperature.
      
The carbon addition had a detrimental effect on the oxidation resistance and resulted in a porous initial oxide layer, which was favourable to the oxidation of manganese as well as the formation of a uniform and bulky oxide.
      
The initial oxide formation on the iron-carbon alloys obeyed a two-stage logarithmic kinetic mechanism with activation energies of 0.26 eV and 0.32 eV for the first and second stage, respectively.
      
The initial oxide film formed on the carbide phase comprised many small, randomly oriented crystallites; approximately 70 ? in size, of γ-Fe2O3.
      
The initial oxide was CoO which formed very rapidly by outward cation diffusion.
      
Characterization of the initial oxide formed on annealed and unannealed 20Cr-25Ni-Nb-stabilized steel in 50 torr CO2 at 973 K
      
Initial oxide formation at 600°C in air on Ni3Al alloys with and without chromium additions was studied by TEM.
      
Examination of the alloy surface after removal of the oxide layer suggested that the initial oxide growth occurred in the lateral direction.
      
 

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