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urban land cover
In this paper, we have critically studied visual interpretation processes for urban land cover and land use information.
      
We tested this hypothesis in 30 small streams along a gradient of urban disturbance (1-65% urban land cover).
      
A secondary influence on variation among sites was related to urban land cover, population density, increased concentrations of metals, and soil erodibility.
      
Classifying urban land cover from high-resolution satellite imagery is challenging, and those challenges are compounded when the imagery databases are very large.
      
Areas of urban land cover correlate with statistical features derived from these texture and edge patterns.
      
Urban land cover was the primary predictor of NTU (r2 = 0.42) and, combined with slope in multiple regression, explained 51% of the variance in NTU.
      
As basin percent urban land cover increased, mean chloride and lead concentrations increased.
      
Most fish assemblage variables were related to % forest and % urban land cover, with the strongest relations at the largest spatial extent of land cover (catchment), followed by riparian land cover in the 1-km and 200-m reach, respectively.
      
For fish variables related to urban land cover in the catchment, we asked whether the influence of riparian land cover on fish assemblages was dependent on the amount of urban development in the catchment.
      
Several fish assemblage metrics (endemic richness, endemic:cosmopolitan abundance, insectivorous cyprinid richness and abundance, and fluvial specialist richness) were all best predicted by single variable models with % urban land cover.
      
However, endemic:cosmopolitan richness, cosmopolitan abundance, and lentic tolerant abundance were related to % forest cover in the 1-km stream reach, but only in streams that had >amp;lt;15% catchment urban land cover.
      
Landscapes varied in topographic roughness and spatial contagion in agriculture and urban land cover.
      
Ecoregions with predominantly forested land cover had weaker relationships than ecoregions with more agricultural and/or urban land cover.
      
Naturally high total dissolved solids and upstream agricultural runoff often mask the influence of urban land cover on stream chemistry and biology.
      
Conversely, the amount of urban land cover types within the 30 m buffer was negatively correlated with fish species richness.
      
Category 2 includes stream segments adjacent to grass, bare ground, or urban land cover.
      
Effects of urban land cover modifications in a mesoscale meteorological model on surface temperature and heat fluxes in the Phoenix metropolitan area.
      
Impacts of urban land cover on trout streams in Wisconsin and Minnesota.
      
Initial remote sensing studies of urban land cover used traditional hard classifiers which assume a single class for each pixel.
      
In contrast, urban land cover is 2.3 times higher in headwater catchments of the SE compared to the entire region.
      
 

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