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crystals
Using the path model and the theory of crystals, we generalize the concept of patterns to arbitrary complex semi-simple algebraic groups.
      
As a result, the boundaries between the surface crystals become a little larger with prolonging the period of ageing time.
      
With increasing the amount of salt, there was hardly influence on the growth rate along c-axis, whereas an obvious decline was observed in the growth rate along either a-axis or b-axis, which enlarges the boundaries between the surface crystals.
      
The use of a temperature as high as 473 K produces a membrane composed of bar-like crystals with larger boundaries.
      
XRD pattern and SEM micrograph showed a good dispersion of ammonium carnallite and anhydrous magnesium chloride crystals with well-distributed big grains, just enough to meet the need for the production of magnesium metal in the electrolysis process.
      
It was found that the presence of SiO2 obviously retarded the formation and growth of Fe2O3 crystals.
      
Results of the analysis reveal that crystals of the complex 1 are orthorhombic, space group Pbcn, a = 4.6370(2) nm, b = 0.7549(2) nm, c = 1.3888(4) nm, V = 4.861(2) nm3, Z = 8, M = 945.49, Dc = 2.58 g/cm3, μ = 2.625 cm-1, R = 0.063, and wR = 0.075.
      
Unfortunately, the two compounds were not liquid crystals and had no biaxial nematic mesophase character as expected.
      
During the fabrication of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) with Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ(BSCCO) single crystals, the superconductivity of the surface Cu-O layer is degraded because of a deposited metal film on top of the stack.
      
The dependences of critical current density Jc on the interlayer coupling strength and magnetic field in Bi2212 crystals were obtained by measuring the magnetic loop of the crystals with different interlayer coupling strengths.
      
It was revealed that Jc decreases with the decrease in the interlayer coupling of the crystals.
      
The relation of Jc ∞ exp (-Hβ) was also found in the crystals, and further analysis indicated that it was the result of Zeldov pinning potential model.
      
The results reveal that the phase transition temperature of big noble metal clusters (N ? 312 for Au, 180 for Ag and Cu, and 360 for Pt) increases linearly with the atom number slowly and approaches gently to bulk crystals.
      
This phenomenon indicates that clusters are intermediate between single atoms and molecules and bulk crystals.
      
Negative refraction and focusing of electromagnetic wave through two-dimensional photonic crystals
      
The negative refraction of electromagnetic waves in photonic crystals was recently demonstrated experimentally, and the physical properties were analyzed.
      
Microsuperlenses based on two-dimensional photonic crystals were designed and the subwavelength images were observed.
      
We observe great enhancement of SHGs in the one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) with defects consisting of multiple photonic quantum wells made of nonlinear material when the frequency of fundamental wave aims at one of the defect states.
      
The study of wave propagation in periodic systems is at the frontiers of physics, from fluids to condensed matter physics, and from photonic crystals to Bose-Einstein condensates.
      
Such photonic structures have attracted great interest due to their novel physics, link to photonic crystals, as well as potential applications in optical switching and navigation.
      
 

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