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emulsifiers
Surfactants/emulsifiers, such as glycerol monostearate, sodium stearoyl lactylate, and diacetyl tartaric esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), did not alter the WAC significantly, but marginally improved the stability of the dough.
      
On the other hand, use of surfactants/emulsifiers increased the resistance to extension and decreased the extensibility, and the effect was greater with DATEM.
      
When emulsifiers were added, the optimum proofing condition in the microwave oven was found to be 6?minutes at 10% power.
      
The effects of different emulsifiers on the properties of the dough and, the volume and the firmness of the microwave-baked breads were compared.
      
DATEM, Lecimulthin M-45 and Purawave were the three emulsifiers used.
      
This problem was solved by the combined use of emulsifiers (MDG) and hydrocolloids (xanthan gum) in a second experimental design.
      
Other food colors and emulsifiers do not disturb the determination.
      
Functionality of different emulsifiers on the performance of breadmaking and wheat bread quality
      
Emulsifiers are widely used in bakeries as dough strengtheners and crumb softeners, but there is a great diversity of compounds with emulsifier action.
      
The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of emulsifiers with different functionalities on the rheological characteristics of wheat dough, as well as their effect in the final bread parameters, including behavior during aging.
      
All the emulsifiers tested increased dough stability, although the extent of this effect was concentration-dependent.
      
The presence of emulsifier retarded dough proofing; in consequence, longer proofing times would be required when emulsifiers are used.
      
In fact, the positive effects of emulsifiers on bread volume were only observed with long proofing times, and that also became evident when crumb hardness was analyzed.
      
Sodium stearoyl lactylate, sucrose ester, lecithin and enriched lecithin were the emulsifiers with the greatst crumb softening effects at extended proofing times.
      
However, when the objective is a hardening delay during storage, the emulsifiers of choice are monoglyceride and lecithin enriched in lysophospholipids.
      
This study reveals the importance of the proofing period to the functionality of the emulsifiers when used for breadmaking performance.
      
The results demonstrate that the rheological response and droplet size of the emulsions studied clearly depend on the weight ratio of emulsifiers in the binary blends.
      
The toxicity of 12 of these materials, more accurately known as solvent emulsifiers, was examined, using 4 marine species of shellfish.
      
Using 2 of these test species the toxicities of 3 solvent emulsifiers were examined in more detail, particular attention being paid to the time of exposure at different concentrations required to cause death.
      
Details are also given of some preliminary experiments with solvent emulsifiers on larvae of the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and the brown shrimp (Crangon crangon).
      
 

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