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bronchoscopy
For now, bronchoscopy with BAL should not be considered a part of the routine management of asthmatics.
      
Therefore, therapeutic interventions like bronchoscopy are often too late.
      
Diagnostic tests like pulse oximetry, blood gas analysis, capnometry or fiberoptic bronchoscopy often only allow a better assessment of severity but no diagnostic classification of dyspnea.
      
Bronchoscopy is able to differentiate these possibilities; furthermore it enables one to localize the site of the bleeding.
      
Bronchoscopy was performed and pulmonary hemorrhage was found.
      
Chest X-rays and bronchoscopy could not detect any malformation of the trachea and pulmonary lobulation.
      
Typical compression of the esophageus and the trachea was visualized by esophagography by 7 and bronchoscopy/-graphy by 6 patients.
      
The cause of the hypoxemia remained unclear until his clinical condition improved and we dared to perform a second bronchoscopy which revealed fire extinguisher powder in his airways.
      
Samples of bronchial secretions were obtained during diagnostic bronchoscopy and blood samples were drawn simultaneously.
      
Other diagnostic techniques such as transtracheal aspiration, bronchoscopy and open lung biopsy may be required.
      
CTNM classification was made according to clinical examination, chest image examination and bronchoscopy in every patient and PTNM staging was made after thoracotomy.
      
Prophylactic strategies and aggressive diagnosis via bronchoscopy are both critical in the effective treatment of post-transplant lung infections.
      
In severe cases of bronchostenosis owing to sarcoidosis granuloma or extrinsic compression from intrathoracic lymphadenopathy, interventional bronchoscopy has successfully been performed, although repeated procedures are usually required.
      
Only in a roundabout way was the diagnosis of thoracic actinomycosis established; it was caused by an aspirated chicken bone, as found by bronchoscopy.
      
In the diagnostic work up of thoracic masses that may represent inflammatory diseases, lymphoma, thymus-associated, sarcomatous and germ-cell tumors, bronchoscopy is of primary diagnostic importance.
      
In patients with foreign body aspiration, massive hemoptysis, or severe obstruction of the trachea, emergency bronchoscopy is necessary.
      
The use of therapeutic bronchoscopy requires great experience in rigid and flexible bronchoscopy, the possibility of high-frequency jet ventilation as well as laser and argon application, and the possibility to implant different types of stents.
      
The results of repeated bronchoscopy showed the post-operative period to be of a non-problematic nature.
      
To elucidate these findings by bronchoscopy and thoracoscopy we took a specimen from the right pleura and from one of the suspicious nodules, which were up to 3 cm in diameter; we also obtained some of the bronchial secretion.
      
This was possible by blind liver punction in 52%, mediastinoscopy in 100% and by bronchoscopy in 50%.
      
 

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