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piston cylinder
On the Effect of Pipe Boundary Layer Growth on the Formation of a Laminar Vortex Ring Generated by a Piston/Cylinder Arrangement
      
The growth of a?boundary layer at the nozzle wall during laminar vortex ring formation by a?nozzle flow generator (piston/cylinder arrangement) is analysed theoretically and numerically and used for modelling the formation of real vortex rings.
      
The compression of cordierite (Mg, Fe)2Al4Si5O18·n (H2O, CO2; Na+, K+) has been studied up to 30 kbar (25° C) by volumetric measurements with a piston cylinder apparatus and by X-ray measurements with a diamond-anvil cell.
      
The measurements with the piston cylinder apparatus where lead is used as quasihydrostatic pressure medium indicate normal compression properties.
      
Large differences in dP/dT slope between this result and those of earlier studies performed with piston cylinder and belt apparatus may be attributed to large differential stress in the high pressure cells of latter studies.
      
Elasticity of CaTiO3, SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 perovskites has been experimentally investigated as a function of pressure up to 3.0 GPa in a liquid-medium piston cylinder apparatus using a high precision ultrasonic interferometric technique.
      
The experiments were carried out either at 1.5?GPa, 1,000°C for 1.5?h in a piston cylinder apparatus or at 0.2?GPa, 900°C for 1 or 20?h in a cold-seal vessel.
      
The study is the result of 94 high temperature high pressure runs, made with "piston cylinder" apparatus, on 4 pyroxenite samples and I peridotite from Beni Bouchera (Morocco).
      
Bubble concentration in glasses quenched from 1400° C was low at 0.5, moderate at 0.55 GPa and very high at 0.73 GPa and still higher in glasses quenched in the piston cylinder.
      
Solubilities were estimated from the measured weight loss of a single crystal equilibrated with a known mass of fluid in a piston cylinder apparatus.
      
The experiments were done in a rapid-quench internally-heated pressure vessel (0.1 GPa) and a piston cylinder (0.5-2.0 GPa).
      
The equilibrium position of the reaction between sanidine and water to form "sanidine hydrate" has been determined by reversal experiments on well characterised synthetic starting materials in a piston cylinder apparatus.
      
All of the experiments were performed in the piston cylinder apparatus at 0.5?GPa and 1350?°C.
      
The equilibrium conditions for the dehydration of lawsonite to zoisite, kyanite and quartz/coesite at pressures and temperatures up to 5?GPa and 850?°C were determined by piston cylinder experiments.
      
Pieces of a single gem-quality pyrope megacryst were polished, coated with a thin layer of polycrystalline REE oxide, then annealed in a piston cylinder device for times between 2.6 and 90?h.
      
Synthesis piston cylinder experiments were carried out in the range 2.0-4.5?GPa and 680-1,050?°C to investigate phase relations in subducted continental crust.
      
High-pressure experiments on a synthetic analogue of the absarokite composition containing low and high H2O abundances of (~2 and ~5?wt%, respectively) were performed in a piston cylinder apparatus over the pressure range of 1.2 to 2.0?GPa.
      
The change of the Ti solubilty in olivine coexistent with rutile and orthopyroxene with pressure was investigated by piston cylinder experiments at 1,400°C from 15 to 55?kbar.
      
The solubility of water in coexisting enstatite and forsterite was investigated by simultaneously synthesizing the two phases in a series of high pressure and temperature piston cylinder experiments.
      
The low-temperature heat capacity (Cp) of Si-wadeite (K2Si4O9) synthesized with a piston cylinder device was measured over the range of 5-303?K using the heat capacity option of a physical properties measurement system.
      
 

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