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reference toxicant
In multiple tests, fertilized abalone embryos were exposed for 48 h to dilutions of a reference toxicant, zinc sulfate, and to dilutions of primary-and secondary-treated effluents.
      
Appraisal of a reference toxicant for estimating the quality of oyster larvae
      
Evaluation of the "reference toxicant" addition procedure for testing the toxicity of environmental samples
      
Chemical batch as a factor affecting the acute toxicity of the reference toxicant potassium dichromate to the cladoceran Moina a
      
Factors were investigated on the fate of reference toxicant,14C-DDT, in the subsystems of the model.
      
Examples of the effect of these factors on the test results are illustrated, using silver as a reference toxicant.
      
Use of one surfactant as a reference toxicant demonstrated that sensitivity ofM.
      
The reproducibility of the three broodCeriodaphnia test using the reference toxicant sodium lauryl sulfate
      
A number of test technical factors as well as the variability in the sensitivity of natural phytoplankton have been investigated, using potassium dichromate as a reference toxicant in all tests.
      
The sensitivity ofDaphnia magna andCeriodaphnia dubia to various levels of carbonate alkalinity and to the reference toxicant, NaCl, were examined in reconstituted water using the three brood test.D.
      
Sand spiked with copper as a reference toxicant material for sediment toxicity testing: A preliminary evaluation
      
Routine use of solid-phase sediment toxicity tests for scientific and regulatory purposes necessitates the development of solid-phase reference toxicant materials.
      
In order to evaluate an approach for developing such materials, 12 solid-phase 96-h reference toxicant tests were conducted over 12 weeks with the marine bivalve Mulinia lateralis.
      
Reference toxicant material was clean muffled sand spiked with copper used in a conventional dilution series with unspiked sand as the diluent.
      
Coefficients of variation for other solid-phase reference toxicant material studies do not exist, but comparison of the results of this study with water-only literature values are favorable.
      
This evaluation demonstrates that use of sand spiked with copper is a credible approach for developing a solid phase reference toxicant material; however, further development is required to reduce both biological and chemical sources of variability.
      
Reference toxicant tests with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) were conducted throughout the sediment storage experiment.
      
This decreased sensitivity to the reference toxicant corresponded to a significant and uniform increase in survival to all stored sediment samples.
      
Since the data indicate high sensitivity of this commercially important species to a reference toxicant and the potential impact on its survival during a critically sensitive developmental stage, we propose future research further evaluating C.
      
petiolatus and K2Cr2O7 as reference toxicant, with the goal of selecting a particular instar as the best bioassay tool using two criteria: sensitivity and background mortality.
      
 

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