ripple 
We deal with the maximum Gibbs ripple of the sampling wavelet series of a discontinuous function f at a point t ∈R, for all possible values of a satisfyingf(t)=αf(t0)+(1a)f(t+0).


However, a ripple current occurs in the inactive phase due to the diode freewheeling during the noncommutation period in the traditional pulse width modulation (PWM) methods, which aggravates the torque ripples.


As a result, the torque ripple is suppressed using the proposed method.


Thrust ripple optimization and experiment for a permanent magnet linear synchronous motor


Thrust ripple such as end force, slot force and normal force are key factors that affect the properties of permanent magnet linear synchronous motors (PMLSM).


After thrust ripple was calculated, its uniform formula was obtained through Fourier series nonlinear regression.


An experimental system was set up to measure thrust ripple, and experiment results demonstrated that experimental force ripple was quite in line with that calculated by the fitting formula.


The optimal theory and analysis method is effective, and the obtained formula can be utilized to compensate thrust ripple in practical applications and improve the motion performance of PMLSM.


Analysis of DC output voltage ripple in an electromagnetic doubly salient brushless DC generator


The influence of the exciting current and armature reaction on the DC voltage ripple of the generator is discussed in detail, and the nonlinear rules are gained that DC voltage ripple changes accordingly.


Research on a direct torque control for an electrically excited synchronous motor drive with low ripple in flux and torque


The experiment proved that the micromotor worked with a steady speed and a low ripple of pullout torque.


The effect of an intense smallscale surface ripple on the development of the largescale disturbance is studied, together with the reaction of the latter on the amplitude of the smallscale ripple.


The heat flux through the interface may cause on this surface periodic waves of small length (ripple) which are not capillary.


A method for choosing elements of the output filter providing a prescribed ripple level in the inductance and in the load is discussed.


In a multichannel Xray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures, a lowpass filter was used to reduce the ripple at the amplifier output.


Two circuit diagrams of dctodc converters that produce galvanically isolated voltages of ±12 V ± 0.05% from a supply voltage of 27 V ± 10% with a ripple level of 13 mV at load currents of up to 0.5 A are described.


The extraction technique is expected to provide flattopped spills having a duration of a few seconds and a low contamination with ripple.


The output voltage is smoothly regulated from 0.5 to 3 kV, the load current is 02 mA, and the ripple factor is 0.008%.


This prototype, designed for trial operation during machine runs, is capable of producing lengthy flattopped smooth spills and suppressing their ripple.

