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public goods
We review the argument that incorporating space in economic models has two important consequences: first, the hypothesis of perfect competition becomes untenable, and second, the distinction between private and public goods becomes blurred.
      
Advertising and city formation with local public goods
      
This paper intends to integrate imperfect information into the Tiebout-type model so as to examine the role of information in city formation with local public goods.
      
To do so, the author focuses on a specific land market in which land developers try to form cities by providing some quantity of local public goods as club goods.
      
They advertise the location, rent, and service level of the public goods of the city, and homogeneous households have no alternative sources of information.
      
Local public goods, heterogeneous population, voluntary transfers, and constrained efficient allocations
      
The underprovision of public goods and the inefficiency of the migration equilibrium in a federation are widely discussed in the fiscal externality literature.
      
Finally, the impacts of the spatial decentralization of public goods on regional inequality fluctuated until the early 1980s but were stabilized as industrial restructuring and spatial reorganization progressed during the 1990s.
      
Spillovers occur because knowledge created by universities has some of the characteristics of public goods, and creates value for firms and other organisations.
      
One advantage of a decentralized system of government is that it allows government expenditure and taxation to better suit local preferences for public goods.
      
Public land leasing helps to include private firms into local public finance and re-orient local governments' interest from SOEs to public goods provision.
      
Third, the paper also develops a spatial model with local public goods and discusses within the framework the impact of local public goods on the distribution of people and vice versa.
      
In the literature of local public finance, one of the well-known properties of optimal matching grant programs is that the matching grant rate should increase as the degree of benefit spillovers of public goods increases.
      
Cooperation of neighbouring local authorities in the provision of regional public goods can be efficiency enhancing due to economies of scale, a better realisation of fiscal equivalence or dynamic efficiency gains.
      
We find that some results related to whether equilibrium state taxes are likely to be too high or too low are much more complex when state-provided industrial public goods are considered.
      
First, we show that in the presence of industrial public goods, a dominant vertical externality may result in state tax rates being too low (and not too high as it is the case with residential public goods).
      
A central issue in the analysis of public goods is the relationship between the optimal provision level and the distribution of income.
      
The hypothesis is tested by estimating the demand functions of local public goods in each prefecture.
      
A general equilibrium model with public goods is used to re-examine Friedman's [9] proposal for fiscal reform.
      
The government consists of bureaus providing public goods.
      
 

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