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explosion energy
Theoretical and experimental aspects of design of service devices and systems using burning and explosion energy to separate automatic spacecraft constructions are considered.
      
These data allowed us to estimate the SNR age, 6.5×105 yr, and the initial explosion energy, 2.2×1051 erg.
      
Dependence of the position of the knee in the Galactic cosmic ray spectrum on the explosion energy distribution of supernovae
      
The position of the knee in the Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum is shown to depend on the explosion energy distribution function of supernovae (SN).
      
The model predicts a smooth knee if the SN explosion energy distribution is universal and a sharp knee if the hypernovae represent a separate class of events.
      
We compared in detail our results with previous similar results of asymmetric supernova explosion simulations and concluded that we found a lower limit for the total explosion energy.
      
We have found that disregarding the contribution of spectral lines to the opacity introduces an error of ~20% into the explosion energy, and that a similar error is possible when determining the mass of the ejected matter.
      
Supernova 1987A: The envelope mass and the explosion energy
      
The inner shell has an age of ≈106 yr and corresponds to a total supernova explosion energy of ≈1052 erg.
      
Taking the distance to SN 1999em estimated by the expanding photosphere method (EPM) to be D = 7.5 Mpc, we found the parameters of the presupernova: radius R = 450R⊙, mass M = 15M⊙, and explosion energy E = 7 × 1050 erg.
      
An external electric field, supersaturated water vapor condensation, and a number of other factors may contribute to the ball lightning explosion energy.
      
The explosion energy transferred to a conic body flying with a supersonic velocity is estimated.
      
It is shown that a high pressure produced in the explosion zone retards the electrical explosion of the conductor and, consequently, increases the explosion energy.
      
The dependence of the height of a gas‐dust column on the explosion energy and the dynamics of ash ejection on volcanic eruption are investigated.
      
The initial energy of the system and the manner of release of the explosion energy influence strongly the flow behind the shock.
      
Thus the blast wave parameters can be described as for stoichiometric mixtures using additional scaling for the explosion energy according to oxygen content (cloud volume).
      
Supernova 1987 A (Shelton) had a large explosion energy.
      
For sufficiently high explosion energy, proton spectra are directly proportional to |ψv(q2/EN)|2, where EN is the nuclear energy.
      
Determination of the explosion energy in some volcanoes according to barograms
      
The model gives for the explosion energy and age of IC 443, 1.8×1050 erg and 13 000 yr, respectively.
      
 

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