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blowing snow
In the alpine zones of western North American mountains, topographic-moisture gradients are the results of winter winds blowing snow from the upper windward slopes and ridgetops into snowdrifts on the lee slopes.
      
They help control erosion and blowing snow, improve animal health and survival under winter conditions, reduce energy consumption of the farmstead unit, and enhance habitat diversity, providing refuges for predatory birds and insects.
      
Vertical profiles of wind speed, snow concentration, and humidity in blowing snow
      
Evaporation of blowing snow over 3 km of transport distance was estimated to be 39% of transport rate, under conditions of the experiment.
      
The extension of a density current model of katabatic winds to include the effects of blowing snow and sublimation
      
A density current model was extended for use in katabatic flow over the steep slopes of Antarctica through the inclusion of the Coriolis effect and weight flux terms corresponding to blowing snow and cooling caused by sublimation.
      
The Thermodynamic Effects of Sublimating, Blowing Snow in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
      
In such an environment, the frequency of blowing snow events is relatively high and can have important meteorological and hydrological impacts.
      
Apart from the transport of snow, the thermodynamic impact of sublimating blowing snow in air near the surface can be investigated.
      
Typical predicted snow removal rates due to sublimation of blowing snow are several millimetres snow water equivalent per day over open Arctic tundra conditions.
      
The model forecast sublimation rates are most sensitive to humidity, as well as wind speed, temperature and particle distributions, with a maximum value in sublimation typically found approximately 1 km downstream from blowing snow initiation.
      
We present in this paper a simple and computationally efficient numerical model that depicts a column of sublimating, blowing snow.
      
This bulk model predicts the mixing ratio of suspended snow by solving an equation that considers the diffusion, settling and sublimation of blowing snow in a time-dependent mode.
      
This will allow the use of the model to estimate the effects of blowing snow upon the atmospheric boundary layer and to the mass balance of such regions as the Mackenzie River Basin of Canada.
      
An Intercomparison Among Four Models Of Blowing Snow
      
Four one-dimensional, time-dependent blowing snow models areintercompared.
      
All four models demonstrate that sublimation rates in a column of blowing snow have a single maximum in time, illustrating self-limitation of the sublimation process of blowing snow.
      
In order to match the model results with blowing snow observations, some parameters in the standard run, such as settling velocity of blowing snow particles in these models, may need to be changed to more practical values.
      
Simulation Of Blowing Snow In The Canadian Arctic Using A Double-Moment Model
      
We describe in this paper the development of a double-moment modelof blowing snow and its application to the Canadian Arctic.
      
 

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