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indirect action
The numerous nonspecific effects of heavy metals depend on their direct and indirect action; in addition, some effects of nickel are specific.
      
The survey also asked participants to indicate whether they identified more with (a) animal rights or animal welfare perspectives and (b) a direct or indirect action approach to securing animal protection.
      
The indirect action, especially in low concentrations, probably plays the major role.
      
These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process accelerating the growth of tumors.
      
Examined elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity, and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process accelerating the growth of rumors.
      
These results argue against an indirect action of α-ketoisocaproic acid via transformation to L-leucine.
      
This effect was not attributable to an indirect action involving presynaptic catecholamines, as revealed by the use of tissue strips from animals pretreated with reserpine or after chemical sympathectomy.
      
The initial positive inotropic response developed rapidly and resulted from the previously reported indirect action of CTX.
      
There was no evidence for indirect action (catecholamine release and neuronal uptake mechanisms) and specific dopamine receptor mediated relaxation and alpha-adrenoceptor mediated contractions have not been found in this preparation.
      
The anti-immobility effect of iprindole in combination with lithium suggests either a direct or indirect action on the serotonin (5HT) system by this ADS whose mechanism of action remains obscure.
      
These data are suggested to reflect an indirect action of intra-perifornical sulpiride upon the mesoaccumbens dopamine projection, via the level of the ventral tegmental area.
      
The present results suggest that EPH may alter locomotion and feeding via an indirect action on brain dopamine activity.
      
The injury to DRG neurons due to the indirect action seemed to be induced retrogradely.
      
These data could indicate the contribution of indirect action by hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to cell inactivation by single-hit and double-hit mechanisms for various radiation qualities.
      
We therefore feel inclined to emphasize an important role of indirect action in case of X-rays.
      
The fact that elimination can be suppressed by indirect action of ultraviolet light strongly supports the assumption that elimination occurs because of chemical changes in adjacent cytoplasm that are injurious to the centromeres of E chromosomes.
      
The results suggest that the increase of the slow outward current is due to a direct action of Bay K 8644 on the slow K channel, rather than an indirect action via potentiation of slow inward calcium current.
      
The mechanism may be due to modulation of the receptors by changes in electrical profile through indirect action of divalent cations on membrane surface charges, i.
      
Growth of tissue slices free of detectable bacteria was depressed by CAP, eliminating a possible indirect action of the antibiotic through inhibition of beneficial bacteria.
      
The present work investigates whether this effect is the results of a direct action of AA on neoplastic cell multiplication or of an indirect action on the tumor cells mediated by changes induced by AA in the organism bearing the tumor.
      
 

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