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constitutionality
Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to recent court cases dealing with the constitutionality of funding public schools with a local property tax.
      
Although the United States Supreme Court has not directly ruled on the constitutionality of the sobriety checkpoint, there is a considerable body of state case law upholding its validity.
      
The Supreme Court recently addressed the constitutionality of police interdiction efforts when conducting bus sweeps.
      
Since 1976 the Supreme Court has upheld the constitutionality of capital punishment at least in part on the notion that the death penalty serves the useful social purpose of retribution.
      
This article will explore the constitutionality of collecting genetic materials, the ethics of such activities, and balance the social good in solving crime and deterrence against the individual's security, liberty, and privacy.
      
the Supreme Court of Canada was asked to assess the constitutionality of the federally administered maternity and parental leave benefit regime.
      
In 2002 the constitutionality of the Sexual Offences Act, which criminalizes the behaviour of sex workers but fails to punish their clients, was at issue in the South African Constitutional Court.
      
Hogan, decided in June, 1982, the Supreme Court had never decided a case involving the constitutionality of single-sex schools.
      
have experienced litigation concerning the constitutionality of their school finance systems.
      
In 1989, the Supreme Court addressed the constitutionality of employee drug tests for the first time in two cases,Skinner v.
      
An examination of the market response among these banks indicates a statistically significant positive stock price response on the dates of passage of Proposition 103 and a subsequent Supreme Court ruling upholding its constitutionality.
      
Implications for the constitutionality of the juvenile death penalty and future research directions are discussed.
      
The advantages of the write-off are that it produces predictable amounts of income at low administrative cost without overtly raising questions of constitutionality.
      
The defects of the bonus are higher administrative costs and potential doubt about constitutionality.
      
To help resolve doubts, we suggest adding on a small percentage contribution bonus to the present tax write-off for three years so as to test constitutionality and assess more precisely administrative costs.
      
More recently the Supreme Court of the United States in Kansas v Hendricks (1997) upheld the constitutionality of the civil commitment of sexually deviant individuals for psychiatric treatment.
      
The XVI Amendment to the Constitution created the progressive individual income tax (the corporate income tax was judged to be an excise tax in 1909 and passed the test of constitutionality).
      
After the war, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Enemy Aliens Act.
      
A different case in 1997 challenged the constitutionality of a state sexual psychopath statute.
      
A party challenging a statute's constitutionality must demonstrate that the statute is unconstitutional beyond a reasonable doubt.
      
 

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