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The two sites have similar altitudes, soil types, annual mean rainfall and seasonality of dry and wet.
      
At the same time, better correlative relationship between runoff and sediment production and rainfall and rainfall intensity were testified by multiple regression, but the correlation decreased gradually with the increase of canopy density of forest.
      
When the soil is covered only by litter, both the maximal rainfall amount and intensity in different forest stands are different if there is no water infiltration and runoff from the ground surface.
      
The river runoff had a close correlation with annual rainfall, the size of forest harvesting and regeneration.
      
The reduction of peak flow rates was significant when rainfall peak was higher than 0.8 mm/min, especially for short-term rainfall events.
      
Results showed that compared with farmland watersheds, runoff generation time in forest watersheds was delayed remarkably, and peak flow was reduced greatly, which indicates that vegetation played an important role in holding and absorbing rainfall.
      
The interception of rainfall by vegetation and the subsequent evaporation of intercepted water from the canopy surface play an important role in hydrological processes, and the water and energy balance of forest ecosystems.
      
Furthermore, the max is above 70% of gross rainfall.
      
To analyze the influence of rainfall on preferential flow, the preferential flow process was observed when the rainfalls were recorded.
      
The results showed that the rainfall amount that could cause preferential flow was over 26 mm.
      
There are four types of rainfall in the Three Gorges area, namely gradually dropping rain, even rain, sudden rain and peak rain.
      
Preferential flow process was found to be relevant to the rainfall process.
      
It was determined that with different rainfall types, preferential flow appeared at different times, occurring first in peak rain, followed by sudden rain, gradually dropping rain, and then even rain.
      
Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.
      
In the rainfall-rich year (2003), during the growing season the precipitation was 870.2 mm and the water consumption of potted trees was from 480 to 515 mm.
      
Due to the uneven distribution of rainfall, the water budget balance was slightly affected in May and November.
      
A rainfall interception model for inhomogeneous forest canopy
      
First, the process of rainfall interception in tree crowns and that of rainfall in the gaps among them are studied respectively to acquire the average rainfall interception of a forest canopy.
      
Based on the model derived by Liu (1987) and setting the canopy density value, both the relevant partial equations and a formula to estimate rainfall interception were derived.
      
A model of rainfall interception by an inhomogeneous forest canopy is classified as a multi-layer model, which is different from previous models (models where all the parameters represent the whole canopy).
      
 

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