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Furthermore, an open debate is desirable because transparency clashes with widely acknowledged ethical principles are missing.
      
Arguments and conclusion: This definition gives the opportunity, to prove whether rationing meets ethical criteria of justice concerning the allocation and distribution of basic goods.
      
In order to ensure a human supply of necessary medical and nursing services, the author promotes an ethical reflection in terms of a theory of justice.
      
Implicit rationing has to be regarded as an unfair procedure and should be rejected on ethical grounds.
      
Suggestions 2 and 3 violate the basic - Christian - ethical principles of human dignity, justice and solidarity with regard to the gift of life and corresponding good health.
      
This entails practical problems in evaluating clinical studies from an ethical point of view.
      
Arguments andconclusion: To develop a new policy framework the international ethical discussion is reviewed.
      
A list of proposals for minimal standard in ethical regulation of research with minors is developed.
      
Subsequently, a short critical analysis will discuss the ethical problem of cloning human beings.
      
From the ethical point of view, the cloning of human beings should be rejected, as it offends the fundamental value of human dignity.
      
Conclusion: It is not to be expected (and it is not justifiable) that under increasing cost pressure, the maximizing rule will become a general and uncontested ethical principle for rationing in everyday medicine.
      
Conclusions: Cultural and social studies of life, context and ethos could be helpful in developing the ethical sensitivity, intercultural perception and motivations of health care personnel.
      
Rationing the public health care system means that there needs to be ethical discussion on justice.
      
In clinical practice, regularisation means a reduction of the possibility to decide autonomously and therefore requires specific ethical discussion.
      
Ethical reflection in this field cannot be sectioned into an economic, medical decision-making and futility sections.
      
Definition of the problem: The ELSI (Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues) program of the Human Genome Project is the biggest bioethical research project to date.
      
Conclusion: In the article presented some ethical aspects of these new pharmacogenomic approaches concerning the physician-patient relationship are discussed.
      
ethical debate, while he is one of the first to suggest returning to the traditional, coherent concept of death, thus breaking with the "dead-donorrule." The German transplantation law of 1996 endorses equating "brain death" with death.
      
This peculiarity distinguishes organ explantation from all other forms of terminating a person's life and is not congruent with the ethical and legal notion of "killing".
      
Not only are the therapeutic effects controversial, but the question of ownership is also hard to answer from an ethical point of view.
      
 

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