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the sexes
We explain that in these cases female co-dominance increases due to more interactions between the sexes (under certain conditions), and as a consequence of all factors that increase the development of the hierarchy (i.e.
      
Bighorns in ram and ewe groups did not differ in foraging time or selectivity, nor did time spent moving, reclining, or ruminating differ between the sexes as predicted by the 'activity budget hypothesis'.
      
For advertising sexual identity, the antithetical use of display types and dewlap by the sexes was both redundant and equivocal.
      
Comparisons between the sexes are complicated by differences in the behavioral assays used for each sex: males are often tested in the field, i.e.
      
Consequently, the fundamental frequency of adult male calls was 48% lower than that of adult females, and there was no overlap in the call frequencies of the sexes in adulthood.
      
We discussed these results in relation to behavioural and body mass differences between the sexes and animals.
      
We investigated whether species specific mating preferences differed between the sexes in three species of blue waxbill (genusUraeginthus).
      
Compared to polygynous species, monogamous males and females are considered more similar in their mate choosiness, yet few studies have explored the mate selection process between the sexes.
      
The expression of territorial aggression by reproductively active, resident birds varies between the sexes and in response to different intruder types.
      
In biparental birds, the relative contribution of the sexes to parental care can be viewed as a co-operative equilibrium that reflects the relative costs and benefits to each parent.
      
Given the absence of reproductive control, increased attention to alternative models of reproductive partitioning in vertebrate societies is needed and a realistic model has to take into account interactions within the sexes.
      
However, there was no difference between the sexes in activity budgets, predation risk factors, or distance to water.
      
The coordination of signals by male and female birds to produce duets could be a cooperative display or a consequence of conflict between the sexes.
      
Consistent with the cooperative function of their duets, the similarity between the sexes in propensity to duet is maintained when duetting is less likely during the female fertile period, as well as when it is more likely during simulated intrusion.
      
The habitat and foraging preferences were firstly tested for concordance within sex, and then between the sexes.
      
The activity budget hypothesis proposes that segregation evolved because sex differences in body size induce asynchrony in activity between the sexes, leading to lower stability of mixed-sex than same-sex groups.
      
For example, the group membership method was biased toward finding significant assortment differences between the sexes when no difference actually existed.
      
All nine measured features differed significantly between the sexes.
      
In biparental birds, the relative contribution of the sexes to feeding their brood (provisioning share) is sometimes reported to vary with brood size.
      
Provisioning rate was correlated with wind strength (negatively) and ambient temperature (positively) but the response of the sexes to these variables was also similar.
      
 

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