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palm oil
The palm oil milling process consumes a large quantity of water for the oil extraction process and, consequently, generates a larger amount of wastewater.
      
Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is polluted aqueous waste with high BOD.
      
Palm fatty acid distillates (PFAD) are by-products of the palm oil refining process.
      
Feasibility Study of Performing an Life Cycle Assessment on Crude Palm Oil Production in Malaysia (9 pp)
      
Data showed that these soaps had properties similar to palm-based soaps made from distilled palm oil and palm kernel fatty acids.
      
In this study, two different blends of soap made from distilled POs, palm oil (PO), and palm kernel oil (PKO) fatty acids in the ratio of 40POs/40PO/20PKO and 70POs/30PKO were evaluated.
      
Methyl esters of babassu oil (BME) and the unsaturated fraction of palm oil (UPME) were prepared by transesterification of precursor oils.
      
Palm-based alpha-sulfonated methyl esters (SME) were successfully produced using a 20 kg/h-capacity pilot plant at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board.
      
High field13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of the olefinic carbons of the triglycerides of palm oil
      
Analysis of positional distribution of fatty acids in palm oil by13C NMR spectroscopy
      
The13C NMR spectrum of the carbonyl carbons of the acyl groups of triacylglycerols of palm oil has been shown to give the composition of saturated, oleic and linoleic acyl groups at the 1,3-positions and at the 2-position of the glycerol moiety.
      
Two groups of rats were fed diets containing 20% by weight of either partially hydrogenated marine oil supplemented with sunflower seed oil (PHMO) or palm oil (PO) for 8 wk.
      
A sixth group was fed a partially hydrogenated soybean oil (HSOY) diet containing 8% linoleic acid plus 32%trans fatty acids, mainly 18∶1, and a seventh group, 20% palm oil (PALM), with 10% linoleic acid and notrans fatty acids.
      
Effects of dietary palm oil on arterial thrombosis, platelet responses and platelet membrane fluidity in rats
      
Wistar rats were fed a control diet containing 5 energy % (en %) sunflowerseed oil or diets containing 50 en % of either palm oil, rich in saturated fatty acids, or sunflowerseed oil, high in linoleic acid, for at least eight weeks.
      
Arterial thrombosis tendency, measured by the aorta loop technique, tended to be lowered by the palm oil diet and was lowered significantly by the sunflowerseed oil diet, compared with the control.
      
Aggregation of platelets in whole blood activated with collagen was not altered by palm oil feeding, but was enhanced in the sunflowerseed oil group, compared with the control.
      
The concomitant formation of thromboxane A2 was decreased by palm oil feeding, although formation of prostacyclin did not change; the ratio of thromboxane/prostacyclin formed was decreased significantly in the palm oil group.
      
Compared with the control diet, platelet membrane fluidity, measured by fluorescence polarization, was not altered in the palm oil group and was significantly increased only by sunflowerseed-oil feeding.
      
Thus, although palm oil contains about 50% saturated fatty acids, it did not increase arterial thrombosis tendency and tended to decrease platelet aggregation, as compared with highly polyunsaturated sunflowerseed oil.
      
 

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