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equivalence ratios
Under such conditions we have calculated extremely small lethal equivalence ratios in demes where probably a great deal of consanguinity takes place.
      
Results are presented for initial pressuresPo and equivalence ratios Φ ranging from 0.3 to 1 bar and from 1 to 2 respectively, for the two initial temperaturesTo, 123 K and 293 K.
      
Mixtures of hydrogen, ethylene, propane, and methane with air at ambient conditions over a range of equivalence ratios are used.
      
For equivalence ratios less than approximately 1.2 the detonation exhibits a short-period oscillatory mode, characterized by high-frequency, low-amplitude waves.
      
The acetylene fluorescence signal is easily detected in propane flames over equivalence ratios from 0.6 to 1.2, although it increases under fuel-rich conditions.
      
Application is shown in premixed and partially premixed ethylene/air Bunsen flames with equivalence ratios between 0.7 and 3.0, and the results are compared to coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering temperature measurements.
      
For partially premixed flames, fuel-side equivalence ratios (?B) of 1.45, 1.6 and 2.0 are studied at pressures of 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12?atm.
      
Three different equivalence ratios are used: 0.8, 1.0 and 1.17.
      
Corrections for changes in gas composition were applied to Rayleigh scattering temperature measurements in the post flame region of CH4 and C3H8 flames with equivalence ratios of 0.75 and 1.0.
      
The flame was studied in a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios.
      
The extinction limits of unforced and periodically forced turbulent counterflow flames have been measured with equivalence ratios of relevance to lean-burn gas turbines.
      
Concentrations of NOx were measured at the exit of round sudden-expansion combustors and quantify the effects of oscillations at equivalence ratios between stoichiometry and the lean limit.
      
The maximum temperature was constrained by the adiabatic flame temperature at the higher equivalence ratios so that oscillations led to lower mean temperatures and concentrations of NOx.
      
The nature of extinction of turbulent unforced and forced symmetric opposed methane-air flames with lean equivalence ratios was examined qualitatively with photographs and chemiluminescence images.
      
Symmetric flames were produced with two streams of equal equivalence ratios between 0.6 and 1.0, and nozzle separations from 0.2 to 2.5?D, while acoustic drivers were used to force the flow at discrete frequencies.
      
At separations less than 0.4?D local quenching and extinction and relight occurred at equivalence ratios less than 0.7, independent of fuel type.
      
Quantitative imaging of equivalence ratios in a natural gas SI engine flow bench using acetone fluorescence
      
They were present above a minimum flow rate and in a range of equivalence ratios that increased slightly with flow rate and centred around stoichiometry.
      
Intercropping cotton and cowpea increased the productivity with land equivalence ratios (LER) of 1.4 and 1.3 for 1:1 and 2:1 intercrop treatments, respectively.
      
Fatigue equivalence ratios have been derived to emphasize this difference.
      
 

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