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transitional cell carcinomas
The primary role of immunotherapy for bladder cancer is to treat superficial transitional cell carcinomas (ie, carcinoma in situ, Ta, and T1).
      
In addition, p53 mutations and loss of heterozygosity on various chromosomes have recently begun to shed light on the molecular pathways of transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder.
      
Human papillomavirus type 16 associated with multifocal transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder in two transplanted patients
      
This report describes two cases of rapidly progressive, multifocal transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder that developed in two patients after renal and cardiac transplantation, respectively.
      
In 4 patients multifocal transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) were observed.
      
The cellular immunocompetence was examinded by means of the quantitative DNCB hypersensitivity reaction in 152 patients with transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder of Broders grades 1-4.
      
Agains+, a control group of 367 normal controls of both sexes, 85 patients with transitional cell carcinomas of grades 1 and 2 showed a normal DNCB reactivity, irrespective of the frequency of tumour recurrence.
      
This functional specificity for transitional cell carcinomas could be due to a tumour associated antigen, a significant quantitative difference between tumour and normal cells, or an embryonic specificity reexpressed on the tumour.
      
Infiltrating transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder were induced by ingestion of 0.188% N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl] formamide (FANFT) in 145 female Wistar rats.
      
Rabbit antisera to cell lines derived from transitional cell carcinomas were examined by complement dependent cytotoxicity, absorption analysis, and inhibition assays and the staphylococcal protein-A assay.
      
Test cells were from cell lines derived from transitional cell carcinomas (TCC-CL), other tumours, and normal cells.
      
Keratin was identified with the aid of polyclonal antisera in the cytoplasm in over 90% of the transitional cell carcinomas investigated.
      
Transferrin receptor expression by human bladder transitional cell carcinomas
      
The protein coded by the oncogene c-myc, p62c-myc, was measured using monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry in nuclei derived from paraffin-wax sections of transitional cell carcinomas of the human bladder.
      
Although no keratinization was observed in the transitional cell carcinomas examined all displayed involucrin staining to various degrees.
      
Sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-blocked tissue from 116 primary transitional cell carcinomas were stained immunohistochemically using a polyclonal antibody against the c-erbB-2 oncoprotein.
      
Thus, the expression of either ras or c-erbB-2 was closely associated with the histological grade, clinical stage and recurrence of bladder transitional cell carcinomas.
      
All investigated transitional cell carcinomas expressed CD44V2.
      
Nevertheless, resistance to cisplatin is a problem that is encountered in the chemotherapy of urologic tumors, especially transitional cell carcinomas.
      
Cystoscopy was positive in seven patients and five biopsy-proven transitional cell carcinomas were identified.
      
 

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