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moment arm
These moment arms often depended on the joint position in the axis of the moment arm and, to a lesser degree, on the extension/ flexion angle as well.
      
The effect of IP flexion is linked to rotation of the force direction where joint torque switches from extension to flexion, while the effect of MCP extension is more likely related to changes in muscle length and MCP moment arm.
      
However, the directional preference (orientation) of three of the four neck muscles did not correspond to the muscle's moment arm, indicating that maximizing a muscle's mechanical advantage is not the only factor in determining muscle activation.
      
Alignment of joints with respect to the leg axis reduces the moment arm of external forces and therefore joint torques.
      
Length and moment arm of human leg muscles as a function of knee and hip-joint angles
      
The moment arm of the biceps femoris muscle was found to remain constant throughout the whole range of knee flexion as was the case for the medial part of the vastus medialis muscle.
      
The dynamometer was kept at the shoulder level and the moment arm was lengthened step by step by moving the fulcrum caudally from the level of the posterior superior iliac spine to the level of the gluteal fold.
      
In vivo measurement-based estimations of the human Achilles tendon moment arm
      
Using the COR method, the Achilles tendon moment arm during MVC was larger by 1-1.5?cm (22-27%, P?>amp;lt;?0.01) than the respective resting value.
      
In contrast, no difference (P?>amp;gt;?0.05) was found between the resting and MVC moment arm estimations of the TE method.
      
Resting Achilles tendon moment arm estimations of the COR method should be multiplied by 1.22-1.27 when maximal isometric plantarflexion joint moments, musculotendon forces and stresses are predicted using modelling.
      
The corresponding difference in muscle-tendon unit length between 0.52 and 3.49?rad/s, estimated from the angle shift at peak torque and the moment arm length change of the quadriceps muscles, was 9 (4)?mm.
      
Imaging-based estimates of moment arm length in intact human muscle-tendons
      
However, moment arm length calculations based on the virtual work principle fail to show the above effect.
      
In contrast the multipennate segment 3, with the largest moment arm for shoulder abduction, had the slowest contractile properties (P?>amp;lt;?0.05).
      
In vivo measurements of muscle architecture, muscle volume (VOL), achilles tendon moment arm length and plantarflexor torque were used to estimate GL PCSA (VOL/fascicle length) and specific force (GL fascicle force/GL PCSA).
      
The coronoid process is involved in the generation of bite force, being the effective moment arm of the temporalis muscle, and occipital height is positively related to the force exerted by the temporalis muscle.
      
Angular displacement, torque, acceleration, knee fixture moment arm and electromyographic data are collected on analogue tape and simultaneously digitised and stored.
      
Moment arm data was collected on 22 cadaver specimens.
      
The relationship between the femoral offset (FO) and the abductor moment arm and the polyethylene wear, loosening, instability, persistent limp due to gluteus medius insufficiency, even dislocation, leg length discrepancy have been reported [1-4].
      
 

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