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hui people
    Looking at the 700 years development of Hui people in Yunnan, we find it was not only the history of ethnic relations, but also the history of economy and culture.
    回顾云南回族700多年的发展历程,我们可以说云南回族的历史是一部经济史、文化史,同时也是一部民族关系史。
    In fact, a study on Hui people's agricultural and commercial development in economy will provide valuable experience for otherminority groups during their process of modernization.
    通过研究和总结历史的经验教训,探索回族农商经济的发展规律,将对各地的回族和其他各兄弟民族现代化发展提供有益的借鉴。
    From a macro perspective, the focus was put on Hui people's economic change during the past 700 years, which were divided into four periods, the starting period of agricultural and commercial activities in Yuan Dynasty, the development period in Ming Dynasty, the retrieving period in Qing Dynasty, and the different periods after the founding of P.R.
    从宏观上以云南回族700多年的经济文化变迁作为研究对象,分别探讨了元代时期云南回族农商兼顾的经济文化类型的初步兴起,明代时期,云南回族农商文化的发展热潮,清代时期,云南回族农商文化经济文化类型的曲折发展,再到中华人民共和国建立以后的不同发展阶段。
    The preface is the presentation of the reasons, purposes and approaches concerning the research on the feast songs of the Hui people in the Northwest China and the variations of the feast songs.
    绪言中,阐述了以西北回族宴席曲及其流变作为研究对象的缘由、研究目的、研究方法等。
    Part Ⅰ is the account of the practice of the wedding feast and the feast songs of the Hui people in the Northwest China.
    上篇为西北回族婚礼习俗中的宴席与宴席曲。
    Caoping is the only autonomous country of Hui in Guangxi,and is the biggest resident place of Hui people in Guangxi.
    草坪是广西唯一的回族自治乡,也是广西回族人口聚居最多的地方。
    Most of the Hui people resident in the south mountainous area.
    回族相对集中居住在南部山区的泾源县、同心县、海原县、西吉县、固原县和吴忠市利通区、灵武市。
    The thesis defines the connotation of political socialization of Hui People. As far as the individual is concerned it means both the mode of Hui People's learning and adoption of political culture and the process to affect the political culture.
    本文在分析认定回族公民政治社会化的基本内涵——就个体而言,指回族公民学习和接受基本的政治取向模式即政治文化,同时又影响政治文化的过程;
    Most of their commercial activities promoted economic development, meanwhile, which strengthened tiesbetween Hui people and helped to form a new minority nationality--Hui-zu.
    在商业得到发展的同时,也加强了回回人之间的联系,促成了一个新的民族——回族的诞生。
    In short, commercial development strengthened ties between Hui people and furthered the preliminary formation of Huizu.
    商业发展加强了回回人之间的联系,促进了回族的初步形成。
    Since the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Commit lee, the CPC' s ethnic theory has made significant achievement in the practice of Ning Xia Hui people: the right of the Hui people to administer their own affair are garneted;
    党的十一届三中全会以来,党的民族理论在宁夏回族人民实践过程中取得了巨大成绩,主要表现在:一是回族人民获得了政治上的平等地位,真正成为国家主人;
    The liberation and development of the Hui people in Ning Xia made us realize: Marxism is capable of solving China's national problem.
    宁夏回族人民解放和发展的历程,使我们深刻认识到:马克思主义能够解决中国的民族问题;
    By that time, the Hui people in Ning Xia would walk with all the nationality toward a new life of more democratic polities, more developed economy and more civilized society, achieving the set goal of common prosperity enjoyed by the people of various nationality in China.
    到那时,宁夏回族人民将和全国各族人民一道走上政治民主、经济发达、社会文明的新生活,实现中国各民族共同繁荣发展的既定目标。
    Inaddition, the Hui people have formed the special culture, the customs and habits of their own in its long history, these traditional habits with the condition of society and nature affect the economic behavior of the Hui people together.
    此外,回族在漫长的历史长河中形成了本民族特有的文化传统和风俗习惯,这些传统习惯和社会、自然条件一起影响回族农户的经济行为。
    Among these there are some advantage and some disadvantage as well, but with development and the change of socioeconomy condition , the traditional advantage within economic life of the Hui people are gradually loseing and its inferior position is obviously increasing, which is the important factor that affect income their level of them.
    这其中有其优势也有其不足,但随着社会经济条件的变化和发展,回族农户经济生活中的传统优势逐渐丧失,而其劣势却日益明显,这是影响回族收入水平的一个重要因素。
    The difference of locality is relation to the rate of the Hui people population and the infeluence of the Han people language.
    其地域分布差异与回族人口在当地的比例和汉民话作为强势方言的影响有关。
    The several million Hui people countrywide have constructed various compact Islamic living communities, in which the traditional Islamic culture has been well preserved since then.
    这些回族社区分布在全国各地,但由于各地回族社区在坚持伊斯兰文化的同时,又吸收了各地各民族的文化,从而使各地回族伊斯兰文化呈现出不同的地域性。
    Meanwhile, they also have absorbed many local cultures from other ethnic groups, which is the main reason why Islamic culture in different living communities of Hui people has its own regional characteristics.
    其中婚嫁习俗作为一种特殊的社会文化现象,积淀着回族特定的民族情感和民族心理,透过婚俗,可以了解回族文化所蕴含的精髓。
    Therefore, similar to the other ethnic groups, Hui people are facing the same serious challenge to keep their traditional culture, ethnic consciousness and religious belief, especially, the fundamental Islamic social and ethical values. With the urbanization,their conventional and comparatively simple marriage system has been broken up and turned into a relatively complicated pattern.
    在现代城市化过程中,由于经济行为及现代强势文化冲击的影响,回族社会的传统文化、民族意识及宗教信仰都受到挑战,传统而相对单纯的回族婚姻过程裂变为相对复杂的婚姻形态。
    In order to further understand the marriage system and its present situation which has been more complicated than before, in this thesis I investigate the traditional marriage customs, cultures and their present situations for two Hui people marriage systems in Kunming and Xining cities, respectively, based on the combination of the methodologies of ethnology, sociology and history.
    为了进一步了解现代城区回族的婚姻制度状况,本文应用民族学、社会学及历史学研究相结合的方法,从社会因素和个人因素考察了昆明和西宁回族的传统婚俗文化和婚姻制度现状;
 

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