

  opening ratio 
Based on Bernoulli equation, nonlinear differential equation for dynamic internal pressure is derived and random vibration theory combined with iteration algorithm is used to obtain the solution. Numerical examples are provided to investigate frequency response characteristic of internal pressure and the influences of opening ratio, opening number and opening position on fluctuating internal pressure. 
针对结构迎风面开孔的不利状况,根据伯努利方程导出内压响应动力微分方程,再采用能量法将非线性阻尼线性化,结合随机振动理论及迭代算法得到风致内压脉动量,通过数值算例分析了开孔结构内压频响特性及开孔率、开孔数量与开孔位置对风致内压脉动的影响。 

The pressure drop ΔP/Z decreased withincreasing opening ratio Φ, unit height H and decreasing inclination angle β; 
填料层压降△P/Z随开孔率Φ、盘高H的增加以及倾角β的减小而降低; 

The heightof mass transfer unit HOG decreased with increasing inclination angle β and decreasingunit height of the packing H ,and influence of opening ratio Φ on the height of masstransfer unit HOG had a suitable value, witch was about 6%8%. 
气相总传质单元高度HOG随倾角β的增大和盘高H的减小而降低,开孔率φ与气相总传质单元高度HOG无单调的比例关系,而有一个适宜值,该适宜值约为6%～8%。 

The multi index mathematical model was established by single factor and response surface method (RSM). The optimal technology parameters of the short stems separation from wheat by fluidization were calculated with optimized method:porous desk opening ratio 26.5%,obliquity 2.47°,the flowing quantity 8.0 kg/min,air volume 571m 3/h and pulse frequency 1.31Hz. 
利用单因素实验和响应面分析建立了多指标的数学模型 ,并用最优化方法计算了流态化小麦分离短茎杆类轻杂的最佳工艺参数 ,分别为多孔板开孔率 2 6 5 % ,多孔板倾角 2 47°,流量 8 0kg/min ,风量 5 71m3/h ,脉动气流频率 1 31Hz . 

An experimental device of semi spherical head large opening inner extruded nozzle,with design pressure 5MPa,opening ratio d i/D i=0.6,length of inner extruded nozzle 20mm,was buiet. By means of electric measuring method,at the experimental pressuree of 3MPa,3.5MPa and 4MPa etc. The experimental stress of connection zone between head and inner extruded nozzle was analized. 
建立一套设计压力为 5MPa、开孔率di/Di 为 0 6、内伸接管长度为 2 0mm的半球形封头大开孔内伸接管实验装置 ,利用电测法在压力为 3 0MPa ,3 5MPa ,4 0MPa等多组实验压力下 ,对封头与内伸接管的连接区进行了实验应力分析。 

The results showed that the pressure drop of packing layer ΔP/Z decreased with increasing opening ratio ,unit height of the packing H and decreasing inclination angle β. 
研究结果表明 ,填料层压降ΔP/Z随开孔率、盘高H的增加及倾角 β的减小而降低。 

The result shows that the method of increasing evenly the thickness of flat covers for the reinforcement with an opening ratio below 0.5 could not solve the stress concentration problem induced at the edges of openings and realize the reinforcement result; 
结果表明,对于开孔率小于0.5的平盖开孔补强采用均匀增加平盖厚度的方法,不能解决孔边产生的应力集中问题,难以达到补强的效果; 

The quality of scrubbed gas accords with requirements after the develop ment of the design of water scrubber for use in the syntheis of oxalic acid now in our coun try,the methods are; increasing the water quantity to 50m~3/h,enlarging the opening ratio of tower plate to 19.55%(usually6%～12%),decreasing the weir gauge to 25mm,increasing the distance to 95mm between droppipe and downward plate. 
对目前国内合成法生产草酸所用水洗塔,采用加大水量到50m~3/h,提高塔板开孔率到19.55%(一般推荐6%～12%),降低溢流堰高为25mm,增大降液管到下层塔板间距为95mm 的办法,使洗涤后的气体达到要求。 

The said problem was solved by adjusting the opening ratio of plate from 10. 5% to 5. 0% and 3. 5% together with transforming the traydownspout. 
通过将塔盘开孔率由原10.5％改造为5.0％和3.5％,并对降液管形式进行了改造,有效解决了产生异常的因素。 

The results showed that the height of mass transfer unit H OG decreased with increasing inclination angle β and decreasing unit height of the packing H ,and influences of opening ratio on the height of mass transfer unit H OG had a suitable value. 
研究结果表明 ,气相总传质单元高度HOG随着倾角 β的增加、盘高H的减小而降低 ; 开孔率对气相总传质单元高度HOG的影响有一个适宜值。 

According to the characteristic of viscous damping, the exact definition of opening ratio is presented and the expression of critical opening ratio is proposed, which provides significant reference for hazard resistant design in structural engineering. 
论文最后根据粘滞阻尼的特性给出了开孔率的准确定义,并导出了临界开孔率的公式,为建筑抗风设计提供了重要的参考依据。 

The effects of the hole opening ratio and the exit mass flow rate on heat transfer and the effect on the pressure distributions at the location of the bleeding holes were experimentally studied. 
文中定义了气膜开孔率的概念,采用单元分析法研究了气膜开孔率和出流比对通道内单元努塞数分布和第2通道压力分布的影响。 

Analysis of the results lead to the following conclusions:with the increase of the hole opening ratio,the heat transfer is enhanced while the exit mass flow rate keeps constant; 
实验结果表明,气膜出流比一定时,随着开孔率的增加,换热增强; 

the blocked stem could be removed timely by a set of cleaning device added over the screen plate of stem sieve,to keep a constant opening ratio of screen,the effective separation of long and short stems was ensured. 
在烟梗分选筛筛网网板上增设了一套清理装置,可以及时清除堵塞的烟梗,使筛网的开孔率保持不变,保证了长、短梗的有效分离。 

A numerical simulation using the kε model was done to study the effect of the burner's throat diameter,throat opening ratio and outer shell length on the gas reflow characteristics. 
运用kε模型,对喷管燃烧器喉部直径、喉部开孔率及外罩壳长度等结构参数对燃烧器回流特性的影响进行了数值模拟. 

The simulation results show that the ratio of the reflowed gas flow to that at burner's inlet keeps almost constant when burner's inlet velocity is 30～55 m/s,and there is an optimal throat opening ratio and outer shell length which will make the burner have largest gas reflow ratio. 
数值模拟结果表明,当喷管燃烧器入口气流速度在30~55 m/s时,介质回流率近似一常数,喷管喉部开孔率及外罩壳长度存在一个使回流能力达最大的最佳值. 



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