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evaporation from water surface
    Compared with the bare land,the mixed forest and manual shrubbery can reduce evaporation from water surface 50.54% and 55.20%,respectively.
    Analysis on the Variation Trends of Evaporation from Water Surface Different Evaporators in the Northwest Tarim Basin, Xinjiang
    Applying stepwise regression (the fiducial degree is 0.05), the equation of soil moisture content (y) can be expressed: y= 486. 709+ 2. 061X4 + 1.786X9 - 4.451X10 (R =0.830,X4 :content of waterstable granule, X9:rain fall before 15d, X10: evaporation from water surface).
    Based on evaporation from water surface (the emended E601's evapo-ration) in Changwu tableland, the revised Penman's formula is tested inthis paper after having briefly been introduced, and the result is relati-vely satisfactory.
    According to the abundant data collected in field and laboratory experiments by the State Collaboration Research Group on Evaporation and Heat Loss from Water Surface since 1976 and a number of historical data observed in hydrological stations located in the typical regions in China, the elements influencing evaporation from water surface and the nonlinear interactions between them are determined, new non-dimensional parameters and new structure of the formulae are recommended. The constant coefficients in the formulae are determined based on the statistical analysis on measured data.
    For example,annual sunshine hours and annual average wind speed decreased gradually, while the relative humidity increased slowly with time, which caused regional decrease of evaporation from water surface.
    It includes the water demand by the watercourse system (including the water transferring sand and the evaporation from water surface) and by the floodplain land.
    河流系统的生态用水包括河道系统 (包括排沙生态用水和水面蒸发生态用水 )和洪泛地系统两大系统的生态用水。
    In order to research the calculation method of evaporation from groundwater under the condition of with crops, the calculation method according to the soil moisture suction of root zone is proposed based on the facts that evaporation from groundwater under the condition of with crops depends mainly on crops rather than evaporation from water surface( evaporation capacity);
    For example, evaporation from water surface decreased, relative humidity near to the ground surface increased, sunshine hours reduced and wind speed decreased.
    例如 :水面蒸发量下降、近地面大气相对湿度上升、日照减少、风速下降等。
    Water consumption in early flowering and setting fruit could be well estimated through the data of the evaporation from water surface measured by pan,the evaporation pan index was 0.39 and 0.82,respectively.
    This paper studies the effect of weather change on regional evaporation by analyses change trend of reference crop evapotranspiration(ET0), and the effect of irrigational agriculture development on irrigation district actually measured evaporation from water surface.
    Annual observed evaporation from water surface for the period 1955~1994 of Jinghuiqu irrigation district experiment station shows a decrease trend and annual distribution of it shows that the proportion of the three months (from June to August) has a decreasing trend too.
    In southern part of Xinjiang the precipitation is low and evaporation is high evaporation from water surface is the main water loss of river runoff.
    Agriculture is the main economic sector and superiority propertyin Xinjiang,and it depends on irrigation. Because of canal system,evaporation from water surface is high,scientific forecast evaporation from water surface is a foundation for how to effectively use water resources and promote agriculture development.
    The relationships between average air temperature,humidity every month etc and evaporation from water surface every month were analysized by using thirty years meteorological phenomena of the southern part in Xinjiang,the results indicated the relationships were closely related,forecast model of evaporation from water surface was built.
    According to observations on the microclimate of different models of forest-grass rehabilitation,such as mixed forest,manual shrubbery,wild shrubbery and grass glad,in Ansai experiment station,the main climate factors,such as air temperature,relative humidity,soil temperature,evaporation from water surface and so on,were analyzed.


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