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    In 1974,American government created the Individual Retirement Accounts(IRAs),which was an individual saving plan of retirement for all the tax-payers.
    1974 年,美国政府率先设立了个人退休账户(Individual Retirement Accounts,下文简称 IRA)。
    An Analysis on the Divisor of Personal Retirement Pension Accounts System
    对个人养老金账户中除数取值的分析
    A Discussion on How to Make Idle Accounts Full in China's System of Basic Old-age Insurance
    做实我国养老保险个人账户的探讨
    Nowadays, the three pillars are applied widely among western countries, which include the basic social security fund, the occupational pension fund and the individual saving accounts.
    三支柱分别指采取现收现付制的国家基本养老保险、采取个人账户的企业补充养老保险和个人储蓄性养老保险。
    A part of the premium that customers hand over is used to purchase the insurance guarantees, the another part is used to purchase the investment unit of the independent investment accounts that are established by the company. Experts of the insurance company operate the investment accounts, the customers posses all the investment income and at same time undertake all the investment risk.
    客户所交保险费的一部分用于购买保险保障,一部分用于购买保险公司独立投资账户的投资单位,由投资专家进行投资运作,客户享有全部投资收益,并承担相应的风险。
    Furthermore, it gives a quantitative criterion to control the market timing risk and selecting risk and put forward a corrected mean-VaR model to analysis how to construct portfolios in the three investment accounts of a unit-linked policy.
    在投资风险控制方面,给出了市场时机和投资品种选择风险控制的量化标准,同时对于均值—VaR投资组合选择模型进行了扩展,加入无风险资产和VaR约束得出修正的均值—VaR模型。 并用此模型分析了提供三种账户的投资连结保险如何进行投资组合选择以分散非系统风险,最后以实例说明了此方法的可行性和科学性。
    At present, the old-age insurance in our country has shifted from foundation of collection and payment in cash in central-planned economy to the partial accumulation foundation that combines overall social planning with personal accounts (OSPPA) in the market economy.
    目前,我国的养老保险制度已经由计划经济条件下的现收现付模式过渡到市场经济条件下的部分积累模式,实行社会统筹和个人账户相结合。
    The study found that despite the arrival of the ageing system inevitable, but the surplus has accumulated Jiangsu Province, the basic old-age insurance system can balance without increasing their own financial subsidies, so it is relatively personal accounts, the transition costs to increase expenditures, and other special adjustment measures at this stage would not be appropriate.
    研究发现尽管制度内老龄化的到来不可避免,但对于拥有盈余积累的江苏省而言,基本养老保险制度能自求平衡而无需增加财政补贴,相对而言做实个人账户、增立转轨成本专项支出等调整措施在现阶段并不适宜。
    The advantages of the 401(k) plan are the employer’s matching contribution, the revenue benefits, the vesting, the self-directed account, the rollovers of the accounts as well as the loans and hardship withdrawals.
    401(k)计划的优点有雇主匹配缴费、税收优惠、既得所有权、自导型账户、可转存性、灵活性。
    The result indicates that the insured’s age, original premium, death benefit, death rate and the choice of the investment accounts can impact the contingent liability of the GMDB. The insurance company may get income or liabilities.
    从分析结果我们得知,保单持有人的投保年龄、趸缴保险费、保险金额、被保险人的死亡率以及保单持有人对投资账户的选择都会对最低死亡保证给付的或有负债现值产生不同的影响,保险公司因此可能会增加收益,同时也有可能会产生负债,针对可能产生的负债,保险公司就要分析这个现值的分布状况,从而确定一个合适的准备金水平。
    This paper presents a framework for e valuating administrative costs of i ndividual accounts based on the term structure of interest rates by analyzing the ma turity structure of administrative costs.
    依据利率期限结构原理,通过分析个人账户的成本到期结构,可以对个人账户的管理成本进行具体计算。
    The precondition of this lies in the resolution of transition cost, realizing the "realaccount" function of personal accounts, and trying to achieve a moderate increase in the investment return rate of the accumulated funds of personal accounts. 
    我国养老保险可持续发展的前提条件是:解决转轨成本、实现个人账户的"实账"运行、实现个人账户积累基金的投资收益率适度增长。
    Under the current basic pension insurance system of the social pool combined with personal accounts, we should set up and optimize the investment management system of personal pension accounts, and realize the goal of preserving and increasing value of the pension fund in China through effective investment.
    我国在现行的社会统筹和个人账户相结合的基本养老保险制度下,应该建立完善的个人账户养老基金投资管理模式,通过有效的投资运营来实现我国养老保险基金的保值增值。
    improving peasants’ ability of self-security by putting agriculture allowance into peasants’ individual endowment deposit accounts;
    农业补贴直接划入农民个人养老储蓄账户,提高农民的自我保障能力;
    The evolution of asset allocation in US life insurance companies is characterized by independent management of financial accounts, with different earning target and asset allocation strategy set for different accounts.
    美国寿险公司资产配置结构变迁具有一些显著特征:账户进行严格的分类管理,不同的帐户执行不同的收益目标和资产配置策略;
    Aiming at the relevant problems in the pension fund performance, several concrete solutions are put tbrward that, appropriately adjustment in payment method of individual accounts pension should be made, statute regulations of retirement should be executed strictly, implicit debt in sale and allocation of fixed state-owned assets should gradually paid and individual account should be made formal, the pension subsidy from fiscal sector should be enhanced progressively, effectively maintain and increase the value of pension by investing effectively with the pension.
    针对我国目前养老保险基金运行中存在的问题,提出适当调整个人账户养老金支付办法、严格执行法定退休制度、出售和划拨国有存量资产逐步“明偿”隐性债务和做实个人账户、提高政府财政对养老保险的补助支出、对养老保险基金进行有效投资运营使之保值增值等具体建议。
    Under the market economy,the substantial payment and methods in individual accounts are influenced with the change of interest,the increase of wage and price,the unemployment rate,and the future life expectancy.
    在市场经济的条件下,随着利率、工资、物价水平、失业率以及人口寿命的变化,个人账户养老金的实际给付水平和方式也是随之变化的,客观上要求在它们之间建立一套正常的调整机制。
    The core of “2+3 pattern” is managing combination of social pooling and personal accounts, and quantitative design of the central, local, and individual responsibility. Without changing individual benefit, the pattern wants to show and solidify and compensate by budgeting history debts, which also wants to clarify entity responsibility, accord urban system with rural system, formalize government management in order to make China’s endowment insurance system perfect and sustainable.
    “2+3模式”的核心在于养老保险社会统筹和个人账户两块的分管性结合,以及中央、地方和个人三层责任的量化设计,以便在现有制度个体利益基本不变的情况下,实现历史债务固化、显化,偿还预算化,主体责任明晰化,城乡制度一体化,政府管理规范化,进而从根本上完善我国的养老保险制度。
    second,as fund-collecting is another important aspect of the system,but the target of the current fund-collecting mode is the fulfilling of individual account,the proportion of adding to individual accounts should be increased in due time so that we can put into effect the mode of "defined benefit" pension system funding collection in the system of "paying-as-you-go".
    其次,养老保险资金的筹集是完善我国养老保险制度的重要方面,我国目前完善养老保险资金筹资模式的目标是做实个人账户,在适当时机逐步加大划入个人账户的比例,最终实现现收现付制下的“给付确定”的养老保险筹资模式。
    Now it is difficult for the management system of fund invest- ment to preserve and increase its ualue,under the current basic pension insurance system of the social pool combined with personal accounts,in order to realize the goal of maintaining and increasing value of the personal account fund,we should op- erate the marketization of the personal account fund,reform the scope of its investment and strengthen the supervision of its investment.
    鉴于现行个人基金投资管理体制难以确保基金的保值增值,推行基金的市场化运作,创新基金投资工具及优化配置,并切实加强基金投资监管,是保证个人账户基金保值增值的有效策略。
 

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