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水化物
    The SOPSIM is not only capable of analogically calculating the stable state and/or unstable state process,but also predicting the generating area of hydrate and estimating the peak shaving capability of wet gas pipeline.
    SOPSIM软件不仅具有稳态和非稳态工艺模拟计算功能,还能判断水化物形成区及估算湿天然气管道调峰能力。
    The reasons of the gas pipeline plugging are: accumulating water,accumulating naphthalene,inpurity,gas glues,hydrate material,ice and frost,ammonium carbonate,etc.
    燃气管道堵塞的原因主要有以下几类:积水、积萘、杂质、煤气胶、水化物、冰霜及碳酸铵盐等。
    During the hydration of cement waste gypsum, in addition to calcium silicate hydrate produced by the cement, there is a lot of ettringite produced by the reaction of cement with gypsum . The function of the calcium silicate hydrate is cementing loose soil particles together, and that of the ettringite is filling pores by expansion.
    在水泥-废石膏的水化物中,既有水泥产生的水化硅酸钙胶结松散的土颗粒,又有水泥与石膏产生的钙矾石膨胀填充孔隙。
    The volume of natural gas hydrate (solid) is much smaller than that of the natural gas and 1m3 of hydrate is able to carry 150~170 m3 of natural gas generally. This property of hydrate has been studied and used to transport natural gas aboard at early date.
    天然气水化物(固态)的体积远远小于天然气的体积,1 m~3的水化物通常可携带150~170 m~3的天然气,国外已较早研究和利用水化物的这一特点来输送天然气。
    According to present study situation on preparation, transportation and storage technologies for natural gas hydrate internationally, through analysis and economic comparison with series technologies of hydrate and liquefied natural gas, it is feasible both in technology and economic for long distance and crossing ocean transportation in the form of hydrate but there is still a certain gap before putting it into application and further study will be needed both in technology and economic aspects.
    针对当前世界天然气水化物制备、输送和储存技术的研究现状,通过对水化物和液化天然气系列技术的分析和经济比较,指出以水化物的形式进行长距离、跨海洋输送,在技术和经济上有一定的可行性,但离实用尚有差距,需要在技术和经济上进行深入研究。
    HPO42-and PO43- etc. yielded by the ionization of the soluble phosphates in water. The coordination between these ions and Mg2+ ions could be occurred in the solution of the MOC pastes, which makes the lowest concentration of Mg2+ ions in the solution required by the formation and the stable existence of the hydrate phases in the MOC pastes be decreased.
    这些离子通过与Mg~(2+)离子的络合作用,使得主要水化物形成并稳定存在所需要的Mg~(2+)离子浓度大大降低.
    Thus, when the hardened MOC pastes are immersed in water, the hydrate phases in them will not be decomposed by water, their strength can not suffer from declining in water.
    因而在硬化水泥浆体浸水后,主要水化物在水中不发生分解反应而稳定存在、避免了水对氯氧镁水泥石的水化物和结构的破坏作用.
    The content of water vapour in natural gas under the ground d eponds on pressure,temperature and compo sition of gas. Under conditions of certai n temperature and pressure,some of compo sitions of gas will combine with liquid w ater to form white crystal hydrate.
    天然气在地层条件下都饱和着水汽 ,其水汽的含量取决于压力、温度及气体的组成 ,在一定的温度和压力条件下 ,天然气中某些气体组分能和液态水形成水化物白色结晶体。
    The result can provide the technical reliance for the process design of well test in high temperature high pressure gas wells and dynamic analysis (hydrate formation prediction,tubing string design) of production well.
    可为高温高压气井试井工艺设计和生产动态分析 (如水化物预测、油管柱设计等 )提供技术依据
    Therefore,in view of these problems met in operation,the pressure to form hydrate was predicted and,as far as possible,the electronic gauge was put-in before the hydrate being formed and extracted after the production being acquired.
    因此 ,针对施工中遇到的问题 ,相应采取了对水合物形成压力的预测 ,使作业时的起下电子压力计尽可能选择在形成水化物前下入和求产结束后提出。
    The physical constitution and hydrate of this cement with high volume fly-ash and slag wastage is detected by scanning electron microscope(SEM), X-ray diffraction(XRD) and differential thermal analysis(DTA) etc.
    运用扫描电子显微镜 (SEM )、X射线衍射 (XRD)和差热分析 (DTA)等手段研究了胶凝材料的水化物相。
    This paper presents gas hydrate generating mechanism,harm,preventive measures and dehydration methods and process.
    文章阐述了天然气水化物的生成机理、危害、防治措施以及天然气脱水方法、天然气脱水工艺流程
    The effect of the phosphate anion on the stabilization of hydrate in magnesium oxychloride cement(MOC) was investigated by the method of XRD.
    通过XRD分析的方法 ,探讨了磷酸根离子对氯氧镁水泥水化物的影响 .
    And the crystall structure were analyzed by means of the following techniques were used: DSC,TG, X -ray powder diffraction and IR spectroscopy. RESULT: The characteristic parameters of polymorphs and hydrate of betamethasone acetate were identified.
    结果 :制备了倍他米松醋酸酯的三种晶型和一个水化物 ,确定了它们的熔点 ,粉末X射线衍射特征及红外光谱特征。
    The approximate calculation of JouleThomson coefficient is analyzed. The production reasons of hydrate and icing cram when compressed natural gas is throttled in winter and eliminating methods are discussed.
    分析了焦耳-汤姆逊系数的近似计算,讨论了冬季压缩天然气减压后在管道内产生水化物和冰堵的原因和消除方法。
    By compare composition of hydrate in different cementing material systems,it is hold that the effect of reinforcement will be better by adding admixture with more active SiO2,with great difference in grain size and adding several admixtures that have filling interaction.
    通过比较不同胶凝材料体系的水化物组成,认为掺入含活性SiO2较多的掺和料以及复合掺入粒径相差较大、彼此有填充作用的几种掺和料时的增强效果更好。
    It is applied at the Chun-Xiao oilfield, by dewatering from the oil and oil-gas multi-phase transportation, the blockage instances of the pipeline caused by the hydrate generated under the conditions of high pressure and low temperature in the long distance pipe transportation can be prevented.
    此工艺用于春晓油田,油中除水,再进行油气混输,防止长距离管输时在高压低温条件下油中产生水化物而阻塞管线。
    The calculation software can be used to design and plan gas storages,go on comparison in various operations of gas storage projects,and judge the dangerous range in that hydrate will be created,etc.
    该软件可用于地下储气库的设计规划、各种储气运行方案的比较和判断水化物形成的危险范围等。
    The software can predict the pressures and temperatures in the solved chambe rs and the top/bottom of the borehole for underground gas storages with salt cav erns during continuous injection/recovery process, and identify the dangerous ra nge to generate hydrate etc.
    该软件可预测盐穴地下储气库在连续注采气过程中,溶腔内及井筒顶、底部气体的压力和温度,并判断水化物形成的危险范围等。
    The MD simulation of Na-montmorillonite with one-, two-and three-layer H2O shows the inner-sphere complexes of Na+ have tetrahedral charge substitution sites in all hydrates, hut outer-sphere complexes have octahedral charge substitution sites that are comparatively fixed only in one-layer hydrate, whereas Na+ begins to diffuse towards another direction in two-and three-layer hydrates.
    通过对含有一、二、三层水分子钠蒙脱石的MD模拟可以看出,Na+在所有水化物中和四面体电荷位置成内层配位作用,而和八面体电荷位置成外层配位作用的Na+只在一层水化物中位置比较固定,在二层和三层水化物中逐渐向层中其它方向扩散。
 

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