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乡土种
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  native species
    Based on the concept of alien species, native species, alien species invasion and its harm, the positive and negative influence of alien species and population amplification on diversity of species are expatiated systematically.
    在综述外来种、乡土种和外来种入侵的基本概念及其危害情况的基础上,系统阐述了外来种侵入和种群扩大对生物多样性所带来的正负两方面的影响。
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  native species
They are generalist predators and thus may affect native species through predation.
      
While some facilities maintain both exotic and native species, most (68%) house native species only.
      
The arid climate of the islands may hinder the establishment of invasive species, which are often not able to survive in the bush and thus reduces their impact on native species.
      
The first group comprises 35 native species, of which seven are currently extinct or vanished.
      
rusticus compared to native species, resulting in increased probability of shifts in crayfish community composition.
      
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  local species
A revision of the local species of sipunculans is performed for the first time.
      
The isoenzymes and soluble protein of the local species are all polymorphic.
      
One of the plausible mechanisms that maintain species distinctiveness, or limit hybridization, is the existence of local species-specific preferences for the natal habitat type.
      
These differences are caused by the correlation of spawning periods of local species of different zoogeographical origin with the different water temperatures.
      
Local species composition was similar to that in Chesapeake Bay, and dominant species occurred in estuaries throughout the Mid-Atlantic Bight.
      
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Global warming will lead to changes in many environmental factors and disturbance regimes (e g fire, drought, insect outbreak etc ) As a consequence, changes in characteristics of existing ecosystems, such as species composition and competition, stability and productivity, ecosystem health, ecological safety and ecosystem services, are to be expected Palaeoecological evidence and palaeoclimatic records pointed out plant pole ward migration in latitude and upward shift in elevation with increased temperature...

Global warming will lead to changes in many environmental factors and disturbance regimes (e g fire, drought, insect outbreak etc ) As a consequence, changes in characteristics of existing ecosystems, such as species composition and competition, stability and productivity, ecosystem health, ecological safety and ecosystem services, are to be expected Palaeoecological evidence and palaeoclimatic records pointed out plant pole ward migration in latitude and upward shift in elevation with increased temperature after the last glaciation Ecological observations also showed that the elevation of the alpine timberline moved upward worldwide with increasing global temperatures during the last 100 years Current global warming could mean that the plants currently growing at lower elevations or at lower latitudes might progressively migrate to higher elevations and latitudes However, it does not mean that all plants of an ecosystem move upward or pole ward with the same velocity Many species may re adapt to the changed and changing environmental conditions and survive for generations at their present location Many species will shift their ranges to track climate change As climate may change faster than plants are able to migrate from one region to another, species will become extinct An extinction of a plant species will also harm the animals depending on this specific species On the other hand, global warming and new disturbance regimes could favour the invasion of non native species due to the reduced stability and resistance of ecosystems Biological invasions will lead to massive losses of biological diversity on local, regional and global scales Global warming during the past 20 30 years has already had a severe impact on sensitive biological systems As a continued warming has to be expected, the global warming issue should be addressed by conservation planners and policy makers, as one of the most serious and immediate threats to biodiversity

在当今快速的全球气候变化 ,特别是快速而急剧的地球暖化情况下 ,现有植物及其系统被迫 :1)重新适应这种变化了及仍在变化着的环境条件 ;2 )往高海拔及极地方向迁移寻找合适的生存环境 ;或者 3)因其迁移的速度赶不上气候变化的速度而消亡。同时 ,气温升高和降水模式 (包括降水量及其分配 )的变化 ,以及与此相关联的干扰型式 (包括干扰种类、强度及延续时间 )的变化 ,一方面将使现有植物及其生态系统对外来生物的抗性弱化 ,另一方面将激活外来物种的活性 ,导致外来生物的快速扩散与大规模入侵 ,进而排挤和“杀死”当地乡土种 ,减少生物多样性 ,改变原有生态系统的组成、结构和功能 ,最终导致严重的社会经济与生态环境问题。在制定域、国家及全球经济与环境政策时 ,应充分考虑到这些问题 ,以防患于未然

Alien Species Invasion, the important part of research on Global Change, has become the focus of protection and administration of biodiversity throughout the world. Recently adequate discussion and research have been given on the negative influence of alien species on ecosystem,with the ignorance of their positive parts. How to objectively access the action and possible influence is the precondition and indemnification of sidestepping the risk brought from alien species. Based on the concept of alien species,...

Alien Species Invasion, the important part of research on Global Change, has become the focus of protection and administration of biodiversity throughout the world. Recently adequate discussion and research have been given on the negative influence of alien species on ecosystem,with the ignorance of their positive parts. How to objectively access the action and possible influence is the precondition and indemnification of sidestepping the risk brought from alien species. Based on the concept of alien species, native species, alien species invasion and its harm, the positive and negative influence of alien species and population amplification on diversity of species are expatiated systematically. The possible influence path and its mechanism are summarized objectively, including: (1) competition and exclusion, (2) hybridization, (3) interrupting or changing the relationship between food chain, (4) bringing virus, and so on. It is drawn that the influence path and mechanism arise from synthesis of numerous factors. The reason that alien species bring harm and loss to human lies in that man lack correlative knowledge, preventative means and consciousness, and effective management. To sidestep the risk arisen from alien species, we should avoid introducing alien species intentionally and plan it deliberately and systematically after taking sufficient safe measures. At present the knowledge on alien species invasion is factionary, partial and superficial. The urgent work at present is to study biological and ecological characteristics of alien species and the ecological mechanism of invasion. It is suggested that we should strengthen such work as background of investigation, present assessment, the invasion path, factors affecting invasion, the ecological process and effect of alien species invasion and evolutionary consequence, and so on.

外来种入侵是全球性变化研究的重要组成部分,已经成为各国生物多样性保护和管理的核心问题。近年来,大多数人给予了外来种对生态系统的负面作用充分的论述和研究,而忽视了它们的积极效应。如何客观辨证地评价外来种的作用和可能的影响是规避和管理外来种所带来的风险的前提和保障。在综述外来种、乡土种和外来种入侵的基本概念及其危害情况的基础上,系统阐述了外来种侵入和种群扩大对生物多样性所带来的正负两方面的影响。外来种入侵可能的影响途径及其机制主要包括:(1)竞争与排斥;(2)杂交;(3)打断或改变食物链关系;(4)带入病毒等。外来种入侵对乡土物种多样性的影响途径和机制实际上是上述众多因素综合作用的结果。外来种之所以给生态系统和人类带来危害和损失,根本原因在于人们缺乏外来种入侵的相关知识以及预防手段和意识,更缺乏对外来种的有效管理。规避外来种所带来的风险,最关键是要尽可能地避免人为的、有意的协助外来种的入侵,并在做好各种安全措施后,有计划、有步骤地慎重引入,科学管理,规划发展。目前对外来种入侵的生态学知识还是零碎的、局部的、表象的,深入研究外来种的生物学生态学特性及其入侵的生态学机制是当前最为急迫的工作。建议我国近期加...

外来种入侵是全球性变化研究的重要组成部分,已经成为各国生物多样性保护和管理的核心问题。近年来,大多数人给予了外来种对生态系统的负面作用充分的论述和研究,而忽视了它们的积极效应。如何客观辨证地评价外来种的作用和可能的影响是规避和管理外来种所带来的风险的前提和保障。在综述外来种、乡土种和外来种入侵的基本概念及其危害情况的基础上,系统阐述了外来种侵入和种群扩大对生物多样性所带来的正负两方面的影响。外来种入侵可能的影响途径及其机制主要包括:(1)竞争与排斥;(2)杂交;(3)打断或改变食物链关系;(4)带入病毒等。外来种入侵对乡土物种多样性的影响途径和机制实际上是上述众多因素综合作用的结果。外来种之所以给生态系统和人类带来危害和损失,根本原因在于人们缺乏外来种入侵的相关知识以及预防手段和意识,更缺乏对外来种的有效管理。规避外来种所带来的风险,最关键是要尽可能地避免人为的、有意的协助外来种的入侵,并在做好各种安全措施后,有计划、有步骤地慎重引入,科学管理,规划发展。目前对外来种入侵的生态学知识还是零碎的、局部的、表象的,深入研究外来种的生物学生态学特性及其入侵的生态学机制是当前最为急迫的工作。建议我国近期加强外来种的本底调查与现状评估、外来种入?

Vegetation restoration is an effective approach of ecosystem restoration in the dry-hot valleys of the Jinsha River.The special natural conditions and the degraded ecological environment in the dry-hot valleys of the Jinsha River were analyzed,the history of vegetation restoration since 1950's was reviewed.The theories research,the species choose,the technological break-through and the benefit evaluation in vegetation restoration in the dryhot valleys of the Jinsha River were summarized,and the shortage of the...

Vegetation restoration is an effective approach of ecosystem restoration in the dry-hot valleys of the Jinsha River.The special natural conditions and the degraded ecological environment in the dry-hot valleys of the Jinsha River were analyzed,the history of vegetation restoration since 1950's was reviewed.The theories research,the species choose,the technological break-through and the benefit evaluation in vegetation restoration in the dryhot valleys of the Jinsha River were summarized,and the shortage of the means,method and contents in the research was point out.At last it puts forward suggestion such as paying more attention to the application of high and new technique,attaching importance to science,practical and exercisability in vegetation restoration,and strengthening the research of the local species.

植被恢复是金沙江干热河谷区生态恢复的有效途径。分析了金沙江干热河谷特殊的自然条件和恶劣的生态环境现状,回顾了金沙江干热河谷自1950年代以来的植被恢复历程,综述了金沙江干热河谷植被恢复中的理论研究、品种选择、技术突破、效益评价等的研究进展,指出了目前本区植被恢复中研究手段、方法和内容等方面的不足,强调今后研究应注重加强高新技术的应用,重视植被恢复的科学性、现实性和可操作性,及加大乡土种的筛选与应用研究等方面的内容。

 
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