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障碍
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Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax...

Ericerus pela Chavannes, the insect producing white wax,belongs to Coccidae,Homoptera. The female adult lays eggs while the male larva produces wax, whichis a well-known product from Southwest China. The wax secreted by the malelarvae may be boiled and extracted to result in something known as white wax.Its boiling point reaches above 82-83℃. It has manifold uses. Before WorldWar Ⅱ, besides the consumption at home, th greater part of this product wasexported abroad. The supply of the female adults of this wax insect in the wax-producing districtusually appears short annually, due to a peculiarity in the growth of this creature;and therefore naturally exist two correlative districts, that is a district of adultproduction and one of wax production. As these two.districts are located morethan 500 kilometres apart,every year the female adults ready to be transplantedon he feeding trees in the district of wax production have to be supplied bythe district of adult production, and they must be carried over a long distance.The carriage of the female adults of the wax insect from one place to theother has been practiced for about five hundred years by the people engaged inwax production. This article reports on a test of transportation of the female adults of the wax insect from Paikuowan (白菓湾) in Hweili County (会理县), formerly of SikangProvince to Huhtaokou (核桃沟) in Omei County (峨眉县), Szechwan Province.Investigations in this connection were made from the April 30 to May 13, 1941. It has long been the aim of the growers to produce the female adults of theinsect and the wax in the same locality. With this realized, the area of wax pro-duction would be enlarged, and the quantity of wax increased. However, as the female adults of the insect in the distr .ct of wax produc-tion are subject to such natural adversities as geographical features, temperatureand humidity, parasitic enemies etc., up to the present they cannot be raised andsapplied insufficient quantity in this district. For this reason, to in prove themethod of transporting the adults female insects to the wax-producing district, toShorten the time on the way,and to increase the vitality of the male larvae-all these have become the crucial questions in the promotion of wax production. The principal explanation, knowh for centuries, with regard to the impossi-bility to raise the female adults of the insects in the district of wax productionhas been the peculiar fact that the female larvae could not be carried in quickorder to a place over 500 kilometres apart. The present test has proved that al-though the female larvae were, in the greater part, hatched out on the way, therewere still a part of them reaching the destination in safety. Valuable informat-ion was also obtained on the hatching rate of the male and female larvae on theway, the influence of environmental factors on the sex ratio, the different speciesof parasitic enemies, etc.. It is hoped thet the facts thus ascertained will be ofservice to improving the methods of wax production.

白蜡虫是我国的特产,古代农民远在元朝已有饲养。在过去全国的白蜡年产量约在五万至十万担间,据1918年重庆海关报告有一万一千余担,值银七十七万余海 关两。解放前一、二十年来,由于国民党反动派的不重视和摧残,已逐渐衰落。白蜡是化学工业上的重要原料,用途很广,饲养蜡虫又是西南各省农民的主要副业,而且农民群众已积累了非常丰富的传统经验。因此,为了总结群众经验,发扬科学遗产,改进饲养技术,振兴蜡业,我们希望能引起有关方面的注意和进一步研究,除研究改进白蜡虫的经管技术外,又须注意白蜡在工业上的用途。 白蜡虫的种蜡异地繁荣,在目前已成为自然的形势,而蜡区种虫不能自给,是白蜡业发展上的基本障碍。我们通过本次测验之后,认为我国适于蜡虫(雄虫)繁育的地方很多,如四川、湖南、浙江、安徽、福建、江西、江苏等丘陵地带都可扑虫产蜡,关键问题在于改善运种方法。在目前我国交通运输业已有普遍发展的基础上,只要用航空运种即可在短时间内将种虫运送至全国蜡区。扩大蜡区,增加农民副业收入,发扬我国科学遗产,为国家创造财富,利用益虫为生产服务,在目前已完全有实现的可能。

The possibility of using granular nitrided fused iron catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at high space velocities is investigated. It is observed that the activity of granular catalyst decreases seriously with time when used at low reaction temperatures,while the use of relatively high reaction temperatures stimulates carbon formation on the catalyst,resulting in the clogging up of the reactor.These phenomena differ from what occurs on a powdered catalyst. The effect of the operating variables and methods...

The possibility of using granular nitrided fused iron catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis at high space velocities is investigated. It is observed that the activity of granular catalyst decreases seriously with time when used at low reaction temperatures,while the use of relatively high reaction temperatures stimulates carbon formation on the catalyst,resulting in the clogging up of the reactor.These phenomena differ from what occurs on a powdered catalyst. The effect of the operating variables and methods of preparation of granules on the durability of catalyst are thoroughly studied.It is evident that the decrease of the catalyst activity are mainly due to the gradual plugging up of the pore volume of the catalyst by the high-boiling-point products.This conclusion is supported by the argument that diffusion within the pores steps in as the rate-controlling step during the course of synthesis.It is pointed out that the durability of granular fused iron catalyst may be considerably improved through the use of a catalyst of more porous structure.

为进行高速固定床以水煤气为原料的合成,研究了颗粒熔铁催化剂.发现随颗粒加大,在低温和压力下合成时活性无法维持;在高温合成时,则又发现生炭粉碎而很快使床层堵塞.为了使催化剂维持足够的寿命,设法消除低温合成过程中的障碍是重要研究方向之一.试验了温度、压力、空速、再生方法和不同催化剂组成及不同成型方法等对活性维持的影响,认为:在高空速下,氮化熔铁颗粒催化剂活性随时间下降主要是由于生成的重质产物堵塞了颗粒孔隙所引起;在颗粒孔隙堵塞同时,反应速度控制步骤由原为化学反应速度控制转为内扩散控制的慢反应.从而指明,解决熔铁剂活性维持问题的关键在于改善孔隙结构.

On the basis of observations of 131 autopsies on newborn babies, we found that pulmonary affections and intrauterine asphyxia were the two most common causes of death with major malformations ranking next and intracranial hemorrhage the third. Prematurity constituted 51% of the uncorrected perinatal mortality under study. It was felt that death in these babies were due to incomplete development of vital organs especially of lungs resulting in anoxia or interference with circulation. In order to profit by experiences...

On the basis of observations of 131 autopsies on newborn babies, we found that pulmonary affections and intrauterine asphyxia were the two most common causes of death with major malformations ranking next and intracranial hemorrhage the third. Prematurity constituted 51% of the uncorrected perinatal mortality under study. It was felt that death in these babies were due to incomplete development of vital organs especially of lungs resulting in anoxia or interference with circulation. In order to profit by experiences and to reduce further the death rate of newborn babies, it is essential that the cause or causes of death in each case must be ascertained through a careful correlation of findings of autopsy examination with clinical data which might have influenced its perinatal mortality. The relevant clinical data could be maternal complications during pregnancy or during labor, condition of the baby at time of delivery or the kind of treatment and nursing care the newborn baby received. The authors of the present series agree with other investigators that anoxia and intracranial hemorrhage not only predispose to, but also aggravate, each other. For intrauterine death, examination should always include the placenta.

1.本文分析131例新生儿尸体解剖死亡原因,其中以肺综合症及胎内窒息占最高发生率,畸形及顱内出血分别占第二位及第三位。 2.新生儿尸体解剖例中早产儿占51.2%;病变主要在肺脏,引起呼吸衰竭死亡;原因大部为缺氧或循环障碍。检查新生儿死亡之因素应包括胎盘的情况,妊娠各期及产程内母体情况和胎儿情况胎儿出生后之情况、以及上述各时期中之护理情况。

 
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