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  collision avoidance
We constructed the neural network model of environemntal information in the workspace for a robot and used this model to establish the relationship between a collision avoidance path and the output of the model.
      
Then the two-dimensional coding for the path via-points was converted to one-dimensional one and the fitness of both the collision avoidance path and the shortest distance are integrated into a fitness function.
      
This individual-based control scheme is a combination of attractive and repulsive interactions among the individuals in the group, which ensures the cohesion of the group and collision avoidance among the individuals.
      
The proposed approach is simple, computationally fast and applies to whole-arm collision avoidance for n d.o.f.
      
In conventional path-planning problems, the main focus is merely collision avoidance with obstacles since a wheeled robot is involved.
      
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  collision prevention
Micro assembly in a SEM chamber and the solution for collision prevention
      
So that the robots do not collide against one another, each robot also incorporates a set of collision prevention rules implemented as a Petri Net model within its controller.
      
By incorporating this collision prevention condition into a protocol, spatial reuse is improved.
      
Our process data highway design uses the idea of CSMA with data collision prevention.
      
The main advantage of using a token is collision prevention.
      
  preventing collision
This will allow preventing collision with other aircraft and minimize annoyance.
      
  collision-avoidance
The aim was to develop a system which would support the officer of the watch in the handling of complex traffic situations by suggesting collision-avoidance tracks.
      
Collision-avoidance for redundant robots through control of the self-motion of the manipulator
      
A new method to on-line collision-avoidance of the links of redundant robots with obstacles is presented.
      
In case a collision is imminent, the collision-avoidance algorithm compute the self-motion movements necessary to avoid the collision.
      
This method has the advantage that the configuration of the manipulator after collision-avoidance can be influenced by further requirements such as avoidance of singularities, joint limits, etc.
      
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  其他


The meanings of such provisions as safe speed, appreciablebearing change, collision avoiding action shall be positive,substantial and made in ample time, and passing at a safedistance, contained in various rules of the InternationalRegulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, are, fromthe practical mariner's point of view, rather vague and tooabstract, yet are the most important concepts. The paper hasbeen prepared in an endeavour to make a quantitative analysiswith available information and data in hand,...

The meanings of such provisions as safe speed, appreciablebearing change, collision avoiding action shall be positive,substantial and made in ample time, and passing at a safedistance, contained in various rules of the InternationalRegulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972, are, fromthe practical mariner's point of view, rather vague and tooabstract, yet are the most important concepts. The paper hasbeen prepared in an endeavour to make a quantitative analysiswith available information and data in hand, so as to procurea compatible reference criteria as a guide for practical application. It is hoped that it might be of some use to mariners inimplementing relevant rules properly and ensuring a safe pas-sing with approaching vessels

本文对1972年国际海上避碰规则条文中某些规定,诸如安全航速,明显的方位变化,避让行动应“积极”、“及早”和“大幅度”,狭水道航行靠右侧外缘行驶等这些比较笼统但又十分重要的概念,从驾驶人员如何具体理解和引用的观点出发,参用了一些资料,试图从定量分析中得出某种实用的参考数据,借以帮助他们在实践中正确执行规则的规定,保证安全避让。

In this paper, a new method of measurement for radar colli-sion avoidance is proposed. An equation of collision circle andcoordinates of collision point are given which are based on thetheorem that if the ratio of two distances from a point to twofixed points is a constant, the locus of that point is a circle.From the speed ratio field equation U (r,θ)=r/(r~2+r_i~2-2rr_icos(θ-θ_i))~(1/2)we obtain a formula——the gradient of speed ratio field dU/dn=r_i/(r~2+r_i~2-2rr_icos(θ-θi))~(1/2)which can be used to estimate...

In this paper, a new method of measurement for radar colli-sion avoidance is proposed. An equation of collision circle andcoordinates of collision point are given which are based on thetheorem that if the ratio of two distances from a point to twofixed points is a constant, the locus of that point is a circle.From the speed ratio field equation U (r,θ)=r/(r~2+r_i~2-2rr_icos(θ-θ_i))~(1/2)we obtain a formula——the gradient of speed ratio field dU/dn=r_i/(r~2+r_i~2-2rr_icos(θ-θi))~(1/2)which can be used to estimate the accuracy of the measurementof speed ratio.

本文提出了一种雷达避碰的速比测定新方法。根据两物体速度(距离)之比为一常数其相遇点的轨迹是一园的定理给出了碰撞园的方程和碰撞点的坐标。根据速比场的极坐标式: U(r,θ)=1/[(r~2+r_i~2-2rr_icos(θ-θ_i)]~1/2获得了一个用来研究速比测定准确度估计的公式——速比场的梯度dU/dn=r_i/r~2+r_i~2-2cos(θ-θ_i)利用此式,可估计速比测定的准确度。

In order to avoid collision and Pave manual labor in oceanic navigation, a hybrid system of antiuollision and autopilot is introduced in this paper. This naw system offers an automatic combinatio n of such functions as anticollision information processing,digital operation, decision of the danger of collision and suggestions on safe maneuvering with the actual maneuvering of the ship.When a target ship enters the preset warning ring, automatic tracking and supervising begins. With every mile shortened between...

In order to avoid collision and Pave manual labor in oceanic navigation, a hybrid system of antiuollision and autopilot is introduced in this paper. This naw system offers an automatic combinatio n of such functions as anticollision information processing,digital operation, decision of the danger of collision and suggestions on safe maneuvering with the actual maneuvering of the ship.When a target ship enters the preset warning ring, automatic tracking and supervising begins. With every mile shortened between own ship and target ship, the system will predict onco tho DCPA (distance to closest point of approach) and decides if there is any danger of collision. If it is concluded that collision is likely to take place, anti-collision maneuvering will be effectuated automatically by the system with respect te the various conditions. When there is no more danger of collision, the original course will be self-restored. And when target ship has passed own ship safely, tracking is released.If the danger of collision still exists when target ship gets into the 3n. m. ring, alarm will be given at once.

为了降低海船碰撞事故的发生率和减轻船员的劳动强度,本文提出一种避碰和自动操舵的组合系统.这种系统使避碰的信息处理、运算、判断、建议等项功能与实际的避让操船自动结合起来.当目标船进入预先设置的警戒圈时,本系统即自动跟踪监视该目标.自船与目标船每接近1浬,即预报一次目标船与自船的最小会迂距离,并判断一 次有无碰撞危险.在判断有碰撞危险时,根据不同情况,自动采取不同的避碰措施.当判断脱离危险时,自动回复原航向;当对方船安全驶过自船后,便撤除跟踪;当目标船进入3浬圈时,如果碰撞危险仍未解除,则发出报警信号.

 
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